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2018年高一英语语法重点难点讲解

来源:101教育网整理 2017-08-28 字体大小: 分享到:

  101教育网为您整理高一英语语法重点难点讲解,期中包含定语从句、情态动词以及与it有关的主要句型。知识点总结归纳,难点讲解,典型例题,希望对您的学习有所帮助。

定语从句

1. 定语从句的结构及理解

2. 定语从句的关系词的使用

3. 定语从句的简化表达


   知识总结归纳

(一)定语从句的结构:在复合句中,修饰某个名词或代词的句子(做这个名词或代词的定语)叫定语从句,定语从句一般放在被修饰的名词或代词后面,被修饰的名词或代词叫做定语从句的先行词,它与定语从句之间要有一个词连接,这个词指代先行词的内容叫做关系词(关系代词或关系副词:that, which, who, whose, when, where, why)。先行词在定语从句中充当主语,宾语,时间,地点,原因状语。

结构:先行词+关系词+定语从句。

1. There she saw a wall of water that was quickly advancing towards her.

2. In Japan, someone who sees another person making the gesture will think it means money.

3. A theme park is a collection of rides, exhibitions or other attractions that are based on a common theme.

4. The park has a conservation center that helps protect marine animals and their habitats in the rivers and coastal waters of Asia.

5. Visitors can go on exciting rides where they can feel what it is like to do the things they have seen their heroes do in the movie.

6. Oprah Winfrey is a black woman whose rise to fame is an inspiring story.

 

(二)定语从句分为限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句:

限定性定语从句:从句对先行词进行必要的描述或说明,缺少它,则句义显得不完整,从句与先行词紧密相连。

非限定性定语从句:对先行词进行补充说明,解释,它与先行词之间有逗号隔开。

1. Before she could move, she heard a loud noise, which grew to a terrible roar.

2. Tree after tree went down, cut down by the water, which must have been three meters deep.

3. Flora, whose beautiful hair and dress were all cold and wet, started crying.

4. Their talk includes rhythm and rhyming words as well as tongue twisters, which often make the audience applaud.

 

(三)关系词前面可以根据定语从句的内容加上一些介词,这些关系词在介词后面常用which 或whom.

1. There was a man with whom I would have to work together and finally the manager of the company.

2. Many people who saw the film were afraid to swim in the sea when they remembered the scenes in which people were eaten by the shark.

 

知识重点与难点

(一)当先行词有最高级,序数词修饰,是不定代词,或是all, no, only等形式时,关系代词一般用that,而不能用which。

1. The Titanic was the largest ship that had ever been built at that time.

2. There is one thing that keeps worrying me.

 

(二)当先行词是表示时间,地点,原因的词时,关系词用when, where, why 还有which, that

1. I’m very glad to return to my hometown where I had lived for 10 years.

2. This is my hometown which I used to talk about to you.

3. I think I can understand the reason why he didn’t tell the truth to me.

4. No one believes the reason that he gave us about his absence at the meeting.

 

(三)定语从句的简化表达:

1. The man who is sitting on the platform is a professor from Wuhan University.

2. The letter that was mailed last night will reach him tomorrow.

3. The question that is being discussed is very important.

4. You are welcome to a party to be given in our class at 7:45.

说明:以上的定语从句部分可以用更加简单的非谓语形式表达出来:

1. The man sitting on the platform is a professor from Wuhan University.

2. The letter mailed last night will reach him tomorrow.

3. The question being discussed is very important.

4. You are welcome to a party to be given in our class at 7:45.

说明:修饰一个名词除了后面用定语从句以外,还可以用非谓语动词形式:doing短语,done短语,being done短语,to be done短语修饰。其结构和意思如下:

1. 被修饰名词+doing短语:  正在做….的人/正在发生的事。

2. 被修饰名词+ done短语:  被…..的人/事

3. 被修饰名词+being done短语:正在被…..的人/事

4. 被修饰名词+ to be done短语:将要被…..的人/事

(1)Do you know the man talking to my sister ?

(2)The “crazy” gesture, moving the index finger in a circle in front of the ear, means “you have a phone call” in Brazil.

(3)Did you see that car being repaired ?

(4)In a camera, the lens must be focused on the object to be photographed.

(5)The students to attend the meeting will arrive here tomorrow.

(6)Goods imported from abroad are not always better than those made in China.

(7)The Yellow River, said to be “the mother river” runs across China like a huge dragon.

总结:以上做定语的那些短语就是英语语法中所说的分词,不定式的各种形式作定语。

1. 这些短语作定语应放在被修饰名词的后面。如果单独一个V-ing或V-ed形式作定语,则可以放在被修饰名词前面。

2. 分词作定语时,其动作应与全句动作同时发生。V-ing表示主动意义和正在做,V-ed表示被动意义。being done表示正在被做的

3. 不定式作定语表示将要发生的,to be done表示将要被做的

【典型例题】

[例1] Friendship is needed by all, _____ plays an important role in people’s lives.

A. which                     B. that                 C. who                 D. it

分析:_____ plays an important role in people’s lives为非限定性定语从句修饰先行词Friendship用which连接定语从句。   

答案:A

 

[例2] Uncle Li _____ I worked three years ago has retired now.

A. who          B. whom           C. with whom            D. to whom

分析:_____ I worked three years ago作为定语从句修饰先行词Uncle Li,从句完整的表达是:I worked with Uncle Li three years ago. 所以关系词前应加上介词with。     

答案:C

 

[例3] Is this the reason _____ at the meeting for his carelessness in his work ?

A. he explained    B. what he explained    C. how he explained       D. why he explained

分析:定语从句_____ at the meeting for his carelessness in his work修饰先行词the reason指“他在会上就他工作中的粗心解释的原因。先行词在从句中做宾语。               

答案:A

 

[例4] Teachers, _____ work is rather hard, are being better paid than before.

A. who      B. that      C. which            D. whose

分析:非限定性定语从句_____ work is rather hard修饰先行词teachers, 它与从句中的work是从属关系,关系词用whose                                                                                        

答案:D

 

[例5 ] The Olympic Games , _____ in 776 BC, didn’t included women players until 1912.

A. first playing                  B. to be first played

C. first played                          D. to be first playing

分析:公元前776年被首次举行的奥运会,直到1912年才容纳女运动员。_____in 776 BC做定语修饰The Olympic Games,指过去的内容,表示被动。用done做定语。 

答案:C

 

[例6] The houses _____ for the teachers and the construction work will start soon.

A. built          B. to be built            C. to build         D. being built

分析:根据句意房子即将开工。_____ for the teachers and the construction work修饰The houses应为The houses The houses将要为教师和施工修建的房子。            

答案:B

 

[例7] How many of us_____, a meeting that is not important to us would be interested in the discussion?

A. attended         B. attending        C. to attend        D. have attended

分析:根据句意:比如说,我们当中参加一个对我们毫不重要的会议的人会有多少人对这个讨论感兴趣呢?_____, say, a meeting that is not important to us修饰How many of us做定语。与全句动作同步.                                                  

答案:B

 

[例8] She has three children, _____ is working in Australia.

A. who          B. one of whom    C. one of them               D. none of them

分析:非限定性定语从句__ is working in Australia修饰先行词three children,根据从句中的is判断,是说:三个孩子中的一个在澳大利亚工作。                                    

答案:B

 

【模拟试题】

1. Susan is the very girl _____ the good deed.

A. whom I think did                B. whom I think she did

C. who I think did                           D. I think who did

2. Luckily, the poor boy had enough money _____ he could buy a train ticket.

A. by which         B. on which         C. with which             D. for which

3. The book _____ he devoted much time is to come out next month.

A. where             B. which        C. to which         D. on which

4. The day came finally _____ I was given an opportunity to act in the play.

A. when        B. in that            C. which        D. in which

5. 1. Don’t you think the question _____ tomorrow is of great importance.

A. being discussed                         B. discussed

C. to be discussed                          D. to discuss

6. The food _____ at the moment is for the dinner party.

A. cooked            B. to be cooked    C. is being cooked        D. being cooked

7. Do you know the teacher _____ under the big tree ?

A. read         B. reads        C. reading           D. being read

 

【试题答案】

1. C    Susan 正是我认为作了好事的那位女孩。先行词the very girl在从句中做think的宾语,同时又是后面宾语从句did the good deed.的主语,所以关系词不能用whom

2. C    定语从句_____ he could buy a train ticket.修饰先行词money:用这笔钱买火车票。关系词前面需要加介词:with

3. C    定语从句_____ he devoted much time意思是:他把大量的时间都投入在这本书上了。devote….to sth.关系词前加介词:to

4. A   定语从句_____ I was given an opportunity to act in the play修饰先行词the day :先行词the day在从句中做时间状语:在这一天我得到了扮演一个角色的机会。

5. C   短语_____ tomorrow做定语修饰the question,根据表达的内容:明天即将被讨论的问题。应当用不定式的被动结构做定语。

6. D   短语_____ at the moment做the food的定语,表示:正在做的食物。Being done 做定语表示:正在被……的……。

7. C    现在分词短语reading under the big tree做定语修饰the teacher 表示:正在大树下看书的那位老师。


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