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2018中考英语知识点:介词和连词

来源:101教育网整理 2018-04-04 字体大小: 分享到:

  新一轮中考复习备考周期正式开始,101教育为各位初三考生整理了各学科的复习攻略,主要包括中考必考点、中考常考知识点、各科复习方法、考试答题技巧等内容,帮助各位考生梳理知识脉络,理清做题思路,希望各位考生可以在考试中取得优异成绩!下面是《2018中考英语知识点:介词和连词》,仅供参考!

  介词和连词

  一、中考对介词和连词的知识要求:

  中考对介词的考查主要集中在:

  1、掌握常用介词及其词组的主要用法和意义;

  2、掌握常用动词、形容词与介词、副词的固定搭配及其意义。

  中考对连词的考查主要集中在:

  1、掌握并列连词and, but, or, so等的主要用法;

  2、掌握常用的从属连词的基本用法 ( when, after, because, as soon as…)

  二、介词考察点分项说明:

  介词在英文中是一种虚词。介词不能单独使用,一般也无句子重音。常常放在名词或代词之前,与之一起构成介词短语,共同充当句子成分。很多介词从词义上往往看不出是介词。如:against的意思是“反对”,在汉语里是动词,在英语里却是介词。

  (一)表示时间的介词:

  1.at, in ,on

  (1)at表示“在某一时刻、某一时点”

  (2)in表示“在某月、季节、年、世纪”以及泛指的上午、下午、晚上。

  in September in winter in 1999 in the 20th century

  in the morning/afternoon/evening

  (3)on表示“在具体某一天或某天的上、下午”。泛指上、下午、晚上、夜间时用in the morning/afternoon/evening, at night;但若指具体某一天的上述时段时,则一律用on。

  on Monday on April 1st

  on the afternoon of May 23

  2.from, since, for

  (1)?from表示“时间的起点”。

  You can come anytime from Monday to Friday. 周一至周五你什么时间来都行。

  The exam will start from 9:00am. 考试将从上午九点开始。

  (2) since表示“自从……以来(直到现在)”

  He has been away from home since 1973. 他自从1973年就离开了家乡。

  We have known each other since ten years ago.我们十年前就认识了。

  (3) for 与since表示一段时间,但for与时间段连用,而since与时间点连用。

  for two hours since last week

  3.after, in, within

  (1) after表示“在……之后”,是before的反义词。

  We’ll hold a party after dinner. 晚餐后我们将举办晚会。

  He got a cancer and died after a year. 他患了癌症,一年后去世了。

  (2) within“在……时间之内”

  I can finish it within an hour. 我不需一小时就可把它做完。

  (3) in 后面接过去的时间点表过去,若后面接一段时间,则表示“在……时间之后”

  I was born in 1983.我出生于1983年。

  My father will come back in three days.我爸爸将会在3天后回来。

  (二)表示“地点、方向”的介词:

  1.in, outside between, among

  (1) in表示“在……里面”,如:

  What’s in the box? 盒子里是什么?

  She put her book in the desk. 她把书放进了书桌。

  (2) outside指“在……外面”

  There are many people outside the room. 房间外有很多人。

  What did your see outside the hall? 你在大厅外看见了什么?

  (3) between在……之间(指二者)

  There is a hospital between the hotel and the post office. 在宾馆与邮局之间有所医院。

  The building stands between the park and the small river. 那栋建筑位于公园和小河之间。

  ④among在……之间(指三者以上)

  “There is a thief among you.” The policeman shouted to the crowd. 警察向人群喊道:“你们中间有个小偷!

  He found his place among the crowd. 他在人群中找到了他的位置。

  2.on, above, over, below, under

  (1) on在……上面,表面相互接触。

  There is an apple on the table. 桌上有一个苹果。

  On the top of the hill, there is a flag. 山顶有一面旗子。

  (2) above只表示“在……上方或位置高出……”,与below相对。

  A plane flew above our heads. 一架飞机从我们头上飞过。

  The Turners live above us. 特纳一家人住在我们的上面。

  (3) over“在……正上方”,与under相对。

  There is a bridge over the river. 河上有一座桥。

  The picture is hanging over the blackboard. 那张图挂在黑板的正上方。

  (4) below在……下方,低于……

  There are many flowers below the window. 窗下有很多花。

  Her skirt reaches just below her knees. 她的裙子刚到膝盖下。

  (5) under在……正下方

  They sat under a big tree, drinking. 他们坐在一棵大树下喝酒。

  What are you wearing under your coat? 你外套里面穿了什么?

  3.near, by, beside

  (1) near在……附近,与far相对

  A hospital was built near the railway station.在火车站附近建了一所医院。

  My home is near he school. 我的家离学校很近。

  (2) by = beside,靠近,在……旁边,比near距离更近??

  He just sat by/ beside me in the cinema.在电影院他就坐在我旁边。

  He lay down beside the statuary. 他在雕像旁躺下了。

  4.in front of,? in the front of ,? behind, around

  (1) in front of在……前面 ,? in the front of表示“在……前部”,指里面。

  A river flows in front of the house.房子前有一条河

  They put a bunch of flowers in front of the door. 他们在门前放了一束花。

  There is a red chair in the front of the room.

  在房间前面有把红椅子。

  (2) behind在……后面

  A high building stands behind the village.村子后面有一高层建筑。

  The cat lies behind the door. 猫躺在门后面。

  (3) around在……周围,围绕

  There are many trees around the village.村子周围有很多树围绕。

  There are flowers around the stage. 舞台周围摆着鲜花。

  5.along, across, through

  (1) along沿着

  He likes to drive along the river.他喜欢沿着河开车。

  There are all kinds of beautiful flowers along the road street. 沿街有着各种美丽的花。

  (2) across横穿

  The little girl is afraid to go across the street.这个小女孩不敢横穿马路。

  It’s dangerous to run across the busy road. 跑着穿越繁忙的马路是很危险的。

  (3) through穿过

  It took us ten minutes to drive through the tunnel.开车穿过这条隧道花了我们10分钟时间。

  He pushed his way through the crowd to the platform. 他从人群里挤到了站台。

  6.at, in

  二者都表示“在某个地方”,但at多指较小的地方,如车站、家等,而in多指在“大地方”,如城市、国家、大洲等。(但大小有时也是相对的)。

  He lives at No.27 Zhongshan street in Nanjing.他住在南京市中山路27号。

  The plane will arrive in Beijing at 13:00. 飞机将于13点到达北京。

  三、其它用途的介词:

  1.表示“标准或单位”的介词:at, for, by

  (1) at表示“以……速度”“以……价格”

  He drove at a speed of 80 miles an hour.他以每小时80英里的速度行驶。

  I sold my car at a high price.我以高价出售了我的汽车。

  2.表示“材料”的介词:of, from

  (1) of表示从成品仍可看出原料。

  This box is made of paper.这个盒子是纸做的。

  This salad is made of apples and strawberries. 这种沙拉是由苹果和草莓做的。

  (2) from表示从成品已看不出原料。

  Bread is made from wheat.面包是小麦做的。

  The lifeboat is made from some special material. 这个救生艇是由某种特殊材料制成的。

  3.表示“工具或手段”的介词:by, with, on

  (1) by凭借“工具或手段(多用于交通工具)如:

  by bus乘公共汽车,by plane乘飞机

  He usually goes to work by bike.他通常骑车去上班。

  He sent the news to me by e-mail.他通过电子邮件发给了我这一消息。

  (2) with用……工具

  He broke the window with a stone.他用石头把玻璃打碎了。

  He stopped the ball with his right foot.他用右脚把球停住。

  (3) on以……方式。多用于固定词组。

  They talked on the telephone.他们通过电话进行交谈。

  She learns English on the radio/on TV.她通过收音机/电视学英语。

  4.besides, except都表示“除了”。besides的用法就等于as well as。

  He is interested in tennis besides (as well as) football.

  除了足球,他还对网球感兴趣。

  (1)besides是包括后面所提人或物在内的“除了”,可以理解为“除之外…还、除之外…又”,表示两部分的相似性。

  Twenty-five students went to the cinema besides him.

  除他以外,还有25个学生去看了电影。(他和另外25人都去了)

  We like biology besides English.

  除了英语外,我们还喜欢生物。(生物和英语都喜欢)

  (2)except是指不包括后面所提人或物在内的“除了”,可以理解为“撇开…不谈”,表示两部分的不同。

  Everyone is excited except me.

  除我以外的每个人都很激动。(他们激动,而我却不激动)

  All the visitors are Japanese except him.

  除他以外的所有游客都是日本人。(其他人是日本人,可他不是)

  三、连词考察点分项说明:

  (一)表示并列关系的并列连词有:

  and, both…and, neither…nor, either… or, not only…but also, as well as

  1.and

  (1) “和,并且”,连接对等的词句。(在否定句中要用or连接。)

  I like physics and chemistry.我喜欢物理和化学。

  I don’t like physics or chemistry.我不喜欢物理和化学。

  2.both…and? “……和……都”

  Both Jim and Mary went to the cinema yesterday.昨天吉姆和玛丽都去看电影了。

  Exercise is good both for body and for mind.运动有益于身心。

  3.neither…nor 两者皆不

  He neither smokes nor drinks.他既不抽烟又不喝酒。

  I like neither swimming nor skating.我既不喜欢游泳,又不喜欢溜冰。

  4.either… or不是…就是…, 或者…或者….。

  Either you come to the office now, or wait for me at home.

  你要么现在到办公室来,要么就在家等着。

  Either he or I will leave. 不是他就是我将要离开。

  5.not only…but (also)不但……而且…… (not only…but also中的also可以省略。)

  Not only she but also I am wrong.不但她错了,我也错了。

  He not only made a promise, but kept it. 他不仅许诺,而且做到了。

  6.as well as也、又

  We will rescue Henry as well as you. 除了你,我们还要营救亨利。

  He likes basketball as well as football. 除了足球,他还喜欢篮球。

  二、常用的从属连词:

  (一)引导时间状语从句的连词有:when, while, since, until, after, before, as soon as

  1.when当……时

  When we got there, the meeting had begun.我们到时,会议已经开始了。

  It was raining when she arrived at the station.她到达车站时,正在下雨。

  2.while正当……时,正在……时。(while引导的从句中,谓语动词必须是延续性动词,且常常用进行时。)

  Don’t make any noise while others are reading.别人读书时不要制造噪音。

  She sang while she was walking. 她边走边唱。

  3.since自从

  It’s just a month since we arrived here.我们到这儿刚好一月了。

  My mother has been ill since I left home.自从我离开家我妈妈就一直生病。

  4.until直到……为止

  Until you told me, I knew nothing at all about it.在你告诉我之前,我对此一无所知。

  He didn’t appear until the meeting had begun.直到会议开始他才露面。

  5.before在……之前

  after在……之后

  I’ll phone you after I arrive.我到达之后给你打电话。

  Say goodbye before you go.你走之前要说再见。

  6.as soon as一……就

  I’ll visit you as soon as I come back.我一回来就去拜访你。

  Please tell him as soon as you see him. 你一看见他就请告诉他。

  (二)引导原因状语从句的连词:because, since, as, for, now that?

  1.because因为 ( because与so不能并用。)

  I can’t believe in him because he isn’t honest. 我不能信任他,因为他不诚实。

  She didn’t come because she didn’t know it. 她没有来,因为她不知道。

  2.since既然

  Since he says so, it must be true.既然他这么说,那一定是真的。

  Since you ask, I will tell you. 你既然问,我就告诉你。

  3.as因为,由于

  As we are hungry, let’s have supper. 由于大家饿了,我们就吃晚饭吧。

  Mother began to worry about my brother as it was getting dark.

  由于天越来越黑,妈妈开始为哥哥着急。

  4.for因为

  We can't go for it is raining. 我们不能走,因为正在下雨。

  I enjoyed myself at the party for I knew all the guests well.

  我在晚会上玩得很尽兴,因为所有的个人我都很熟悉。

  5.now that既然

  Now that he is unhappy, let’s leave him alone. 既然他不高兴,我们就让他自己呆着吧。

  Now that she feels sorry, please forgive her. 既然她很后悔,就请原谅她吧。

  (三)引导结果状语从句:

  so…that, such…that

  1.so…that 如此……以致

  She is so tired that she can’t go any further. 她太累了,不能再走了。

  She is so big a cat that she can’t get into the hole. 这猫太大了钻不进这洞。

  2.such…that 如此……以致

  It’s such a beautiful place that I wouldn’t come back.这地方太美了,令我留恋忘返。

  It’s such a fine day that many people go to the park for fun.

  天气这么好,许多人都到公园里来玩。

  (四)引导目的状语从句的连词:so that, in order that以便

  They hurried so that they can get there on time.他们加快了速度,为的是能够按时到达。

  I hired a boat in order that I can go fishing.为了去钓鱼,我租了条小船。

  (五)引导比较状语从句的连词:than, as…as

  He is taller than his brother. 他比他兄弟高。

  She could draw as well as her teacher. 她能画得跟她的老师一样好。

  (六)引导让步状语从句的连词:though, although (though与although的用法基本一样)

  Although it rained hard, he still went out.尽管雨下得很大,他还是出去了。

  Even though I have enough time, I don’t want to go there with him.

  尽管我有时间,可我并不想跟他去那。


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