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初一中考英语知识点:谓语动词和主语的一致

来源:101教育网整理 2018-06-04 字体大小: 分享到:

  新一轮中考复习备考周期正式开始,101教育为各位初三考生整理了各学科的复习攻略,主要包括中考必考点、中考常考知识点、各科复习方法、考试答题技巧等内容,帮助各位考生梳理知识脉络,理清做题思路,希望各位考生可以在考试中取得优异成绩!下面是《2018中考英语知识点:谓语动词和主语的一致》,仅供参考!

  谓语动词和主语的一致

  有些谓语动词必须和主语在人称和数上保持一致,特别是动词为现在时态时。在一般现在时中,若主语为第三人称单数,多数动词都要加-s或-es,如:He comes.Mary cries。如果主语不是第三人称单数,就不需加这样的词尾,如:I come.

  They cry.而且,不管是作主要动词还是助动词,在第三人称单数的主语后都得用is,has,does这种形式,否则用are,am,have或do。至于can,may,must这些助动词,在各种人称后形式不变:

  He(or She,It,My friend)comes(or sees,goes).

  He(or She,It,My friend)is waiting,has come,does go,(is,has,does作助动词) is kind,has a funny face,doesnothing at all.(is,has,does作主要动词)

  I(or we,You,They,My friends)come(or see,go).

  I am waiting,have come,do go.We(or You,They,Myfriends)are waiting,have come,do go.(am,are,have,do作助动词)

  I am sorry.They are kind,have funny faces,do nothingat all.(am,are,have,do作主要动词)

  任何主语+must(or can,may,ought to,need not,darenot)come(or see,go).

  过去时可和住何主语一起用,只有was和were是例外。was和第一第三人称单数主语一起用,其他主语都和were一起用,如:

  He was ill.I was ill.They were ill.

  在将来时中主要是用shall或will,不需加词尾,如:

  They(or John and Mary) will come,shall come.

  He(or It) will come,shall come.

  ?判断主语的人称不难,但判断它的数有时却并不容易。至少有39种有关数上一致的问题,它们可以分为两大类。

  第一大类是哪个是主语的问题。在这类中,决定哪个词或词组是主语比决定某个主语是单数还是复数更困难。以下面句子为例:

  The students,as well as the teacher,are(or is?)in the class-room.(在决定用are还是is以前,首先得决定students和teacher哪是主语,还是两者都是主语。)

  My guide is(or are?) the stars.(是guide还是stars是真正的主语?)

  第二大类是主语是单数还是复数的问题。在这类中,决定主语是单数还是复数比决定哪个是主语更困难:

  Billiards(单数还是复数?) is(or are?)my favorite game.

  The phenomena(单数还是复数?) is(or are?) unbelievable.

  The headquarters(单数还是复数?) is(or are?)in London.

  1)第一大类:哪个是主语?

  谓语动词通常跟在主语后面,但有时却放在主语前面,特别是在由who,which,how,when等疑问词或助动词引起的问句中:

  Who are they?

  Which does she like best?

  Has your wife come back from Paris?

  Are the guests celebrating her birthday?

  在某些倒装句中,谓语动词有时放在主语前面:

  If you are not satisfied,nor is Peter.

  Never in my life have I forgot her.Nobody else can I love.

  Hardly has Liz woken up when the sun rises.

  “I feel bored.”“So is evrybody.”

  在下面这类倒装句中情况也如此。

  There come many children.

  Before the house stands a tree.

  Before the house stand a tree and a bench(two things).

  In the house there is a cat,(there is)a dog,and(thereare)three birds.(后面的there is,there are多省略,在acat前用is是对的。)

  To Dick fall the duties of maintaining the family.

  After Jan comes Nora.

  Here's all the coins I have.(在口语中here's和there's和where's后可跟一复数名词)

  There's three friends waiting for me.

  Where's the kids that stole the apples?

  在下面这类句子中,补语或分词提前,主语在is,was,are,were之后:

  Gone are all my happy days!

  Waiting for the results are thousands of people.Gathered under the roof were all the big shots.

  两个单数名词由and连接可构成复数主语:

  John and Mary(=Two persons)are coming.

  (但:John is coming and Mary is coming,too.)

  My money and my friend are both gone.

  Good coffee and bad are different from each other.

  两个人称代词由and连接也构成复数主语:

  He and I (=We)are friends.

  Both you and he(=Both of you)are ill.

  由every,any等词修饰的几个主语,尽管由and连接,仍然保持是单数:

  Every boy and every girl is playing.

  Any relative,any friend and any neighbour is ready to helphim.

  Each grown-up and each child likes it.

  No city,no village,no mountain,(and) no sea is a place ofsafety.

  Many a man and many a woman has seen the accident.

  两个名词前各加同一限定词,表示是两个人或两样东西,谓语动词要用复数:

  A general and a statesman(two persons)were killed.

  His home and his office are very far from my home.

  A black and a white dog are playing in the yard.

  一个不可数名词,如有两个形容词修饰,而指两样东西,动词用复数;否则用单数:

  English and French grammar are different.

  Sweet and sour pork is delicious.

  如果主体词重复,表示是两样东西,动词要用单数:

  The situation before the war and the situation after are differ-ent.

  What he said and what he thought were the same.

  如作主语的两个名词用同一限定词,指的是一个人或一样东西,动词要用单数:

  A general and statesman(one person)was killed.

  His home and office(one place)is very far from my house.

  A black and white dog(one dog) is playing.

  What he said and thought was for others.

  有时两个名词虽由and连接,但习惯上被看作是一样东西,这时动词也用单数:

  Bread and butter is enough for me.

  Whisky and soda is his favourite.

  Duck and peas is delicious,but eggs and bacon is better.

  That cup and saucer is broken.

  The wheel and axle is out of repair.

  A needle and thread is all my grandmother needs.

  Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy.

  两个抽象名词一起用时,有时代表两个东西,有时代表一个东西,动词的单复数要根据意思来决定,有时两者都可以(看我们如何考虑):

  The use and object of this are(or is)simple.

  The stitching and binding of books are(or is)a hard job.

  His courage and endurance are(or is)Great.

  Sym pathy and understanding are(or is)required.

  Trial and error(通常看作一个概念)is the best way tolearn.

  All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.

  The ebb and flow of one's fortune is a matter of course.

  有时一个主语后跟一逗号,以及“and+名词+副词”,后面的动词就常和第一个名词一致。“and+名词+副词”可以看作一个省略的分句:

  Mary,and her parents too(or also,likewise,as well),isfond of John.(=Mary is fond of John,and her parents arefond of John,too.)

  Mary,and perhaps(or particularly,even,certainly)herparents,is fond of John.(and+副词+名词)

  Mary,but not her parents,is fond of John.

  Mary's parents,but not Mary herself,are fond of John.(在跟有not时,可以用but代替and。)

  单纯数词一般看作单数,如果有两个数词由and或time或其它词连接,动词可以用单数或复数形式:

  Thirteen is an unlucky number.

  Two and two make(or makes)four.

  Eight plus five equals thirteen.(书面体)

  Three fives are(or is)fifteen.(口语体)

  Three times five are(or is)fifteen.

  What are(or is)twice seven?

  40 multiplied by 58 equals 2320.(书面体)

  Five from nine(or Nine take away five)is(or leaves)four.(口语体)

  Six hundred and one minus forty equals five hundred and six-ty-one.(书面体)

  Three into twelve goes four.(口语体)

  Two hundred fifty divided by fifty equals five.(书面体)如果数词表示复数的人或东西,动词也用复数形式:

  Five(=Five Persons)were killed.

  One and a half…为复数,而half a…为单数:

  One and a half dollars were spent on sugar,and half a dollarwas Spent on flour.

  A fine and/or imprisonment is(or are)not enough.

  如果两个主语由or或nor连接,动词与最靠近的主语一致:Either you or I am right.

  Neither Alice nor her parents like Mike.

  One or two words are enough.(但是A word or two is e-nough.)

  There is one or two examples.

  Wang or rather his brothers decide the matter.

  但:Life or(=and)death are nothing to me.

  Whether John or Mary are willing to help me is still a problem.

  两个主语若由not only…but also…连接起来,动词和最近的主语一致:

  Not only my house,but many other houses have been white-washed.

  (但最好说:Not only my house has been whitewashed,butmany other houses,too.)

  Not only Mary's parents,but also Mary herself likes Mike.

  There is not only Mary,but also Mary's parents.

  如果主语后跟有介词短语、连词短语或是分词短语,动词仍与主语一致,不受中间插入成分的影响(注意主语后及短语后的逗号):

  Two girls,besides(介词)Mary,are studying Malay.


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