一、关系代词who, whom, whose, which, that引导定语从句的基本用法:
三者都可指代人: who作主语, whom 作宾语, that既可以作主语, 又可作宾语。如:
He is a good teacher who/that is loved by all.
Here is the man (whom) you are looking for.
注意: ①在口语中, who 可以代替whom作宾语。②关系代词在定语从句中作宾语时, 一般可省略。
2. whose 可修饰人,也可修饰物; 修饰物时, 可与of which换用,whose在定语从句中作定语。如:
I saw some trees whose leaves were black with diseases.
= I saw some trees the leaves of which were black with diseases.
3. that/which/that/which指代物, 在定语从句中可作主语或宾语。如:
Emei is a wonderful place which/that is worth visiting.
The film (which/that) we saw last night is wonderful.
1. 常用that 不用which的情况:
① 先行词为all, anything, everything, nothing, something等时。如:
I will do all (that) I can to help you.
② 先行词被序数词、形容词最高级或the only, the very等所修饰时。如:
He was the only person that joined the army in his village that year.
They talked about the people and the things (that)they remembered in the school.
④ 当主句是以who 或which开头的疑问句时, 定语从句用that 引导, 以避免重复。如:
Who is the boy that was here just now?
2. 若被修饰的名词充当从句介词宾语时, 介词可提前于引导词之前,此时的引导词只能用whom 或which。如:
The pencil with which he was writing broke.
3. 当先行词为way时,其后的定语从句用in which或 that引导,也可不用引导词。如:
I don’t like the way (in which/that) he talks to me.
1. To tell the truth, this is the only thing _______ I have in the world.
A. which B. that C. what D. of which
2. Everyone was on time for the meeting but Chris, ______ is usually ten minutes late for everything.
A. that B. which C. who D. whom
3. George Orwell, _______ was Eric Arthur, wrote many political novels and essays.
A. the real name B. what his real name
C. his real name D. whose real name
4. It is ______ he said it that surprised me.
A. the way B. in the way that
C. in the way D. the way which
5. The girl to ______ I spoke is one of my old friends.
A. who B. whom C. that D. which
Key: 1-5 BCDAB