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高中英语语法学习常见的几个误区

来源:101教育网整理 2020-03-20 字体大小: 分享到:

  没有好的高一,必然没有好的高考;没有高一的危机感和紧迫感,就没有高三的从容自信!

  (一)对名词数的概念和规则掌握不好

  英语中的名词有单数、复数、可数、不可数等形式,其变化形势复杂规则繁多,中学生常常对这些规则的运用不能得心应手,而汉语的名词有没有数的概念,一步强调可数与不可数。如:passer-by →(过路人),woman teachers →(女教师)。有些名词形式上虽然是单数,意义上却是复数。如:police →(警察),cattle→ (牛)。而另一些名词形式上虽然是复数,意义上却是单数。如:news →(消息),works →(著作)等。

  (二)冠词的用法相互混淆

  虽说英语中只有定冠词和不定冠词,但其用法并非三言两语可以说清,即使掌握一些规律也有不少例外。中国学生对用与不用冠词极其容易混淆。

  Can you play the violin?(在于其名词前,用定冠词)

  The young has turned writer.(在turn等连系动词后作表语的单数名词前习惯上不加上冠词)

  (三)对英语动词的几种形式相互混淆

  英语动词是句子的关键。就英语动词分类而言,有及物动词、不及物动词、瞬间动词、延续动词、感官动词、连系动词等,每一类的动词都有各自的用法特征,中国学生常常把不及物动词当做及物动词用,把瞬间动词当做延续动词用。

  (误)He has come here for three years.

  (正)He has been here for three years.

  (误)I have bought the computer for a long time

  (正)I have had the computer for a long time

  就动词的形式而言,非限定动词的时态和语态也令中国学生头痛,因为有些动词要求后面接动名词作宾语,有些动词要求后面接动词不定式作宾语,还有的两者都可以接。

  Would you mind opening the window?

  I remember seeing him somewhere before.

  Please remember to shut the door.

  又如,非谓语动词不仅仅跟句子中的主语有直接的逻辑关系,而且还跟非谓语动词做什么状语有关。

  (误)Seeing from the top of the hill , the city looks much more beautiful.

  (正)Seen from the top of the hill , the city looks much more beautiful.

  “see” 的主语应该是人,而不是“the city”,因此要用 “see” 的过去分词形式,表示被动。类似这样的错误在学生中是很常见的。

  (四)易混淆动词的时态概念和形式

  英语动词的时态有16种,常用的也有9种。虽说他们的形式是固定的,但用法是灵活的。因此中国学生常常把某种时态的用法套在另一种时态的用法上。该用过去时态的地方却用过去完成时态代替,该用过去完成时态的地方却过去时态用代替。

  (误)I had met him in the street this morning.

  (正)I met him in the street this morning.

  (误)I thought you finished your homework.

  (正)I had thought you finished your homework.

  (误)When I got to the cinema ,the film already began.

  (正)When I got to the cinema ,the film had already begun..

  (五)对英语被动语态的形式和用法不能运用自如

  汉语中比英语被动语态的使用频率相对来说要少得多。中国学生不习惯用英语被动句。汉语的被动句往往就用一个字就可以决定其被动意思,而英语的被动形式不仅与动词本身的形式有关,而且还与时态、语气以及主语与动词的关系有关。

  (误)Australia speaks English.

  (正)English is spoken in Australia.

  (误)What is to do next?

  (正)What is to be done next?

  (误)I remember taking to Beijing when I was a child.

  (正)I remember being taken to Beijing when I was a child.

  (六)虚拟语气形式的复杂性和用法的灵活性令中国学生感到困惑

  (误)I wish I know the answer now.

  (正)I wish I knew the answer now.

  (误)If you had come a few minutes earlier, you would meet the scientist.

  (正)If you had come a few minutes earlier, you would have met the scientist.

  (误)I suggest he goes to see the doctor at once.

  (正)I suggest he (should) go to see the doctor at once.

  (七)不用或错用英语连接词

  汉语是综合性语言,强调的是“意合”,句语句之间可以不用连词,把种种关系隐含在上下文中:英语是分析性语言,强调的是“行合”,句语句之间或者是主句和从句之间需要一种方式来表达它们之间的句法关系。

  (误)Although he is old, but he works hard.

  (正)Although he is old, he works hard.

  (误)Because he was ill, so he didn’t go to school.

  (正)Because he was ill, so he didn’t go to school.

  (正)Because he was ill, he didn’t go to school.

  (正)He was ill, so he didn’t go to school.

  (八)忽视一致性问题

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