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英语书面表达中常见的错误类型分析

来源:未知 2013-04-08 字体大小: 分享到:

  ⑴格式错误

  有的考生不能正确地运用书信或日记的格式。A)书信常有五部分:①信头:右上角写上收信人的地址和写信日期; ②称谓; ③正文; ④结束语, 常用的有Yours sincerely/Yours truly/Yours faithfully;; ⑤签名。B)日记格式:顶格写上月、日、年和星期,右边写上天气情况。

  ⑵词序错误

  ①并列的人称代词做主语时,I没有放在最后。例如:I, you and he are all League members.

  ②没弄清英语中真正的主语。例如:Without a friend will feel lonely.

  ③修饰语错位。例如:He very likes dancing.

  ⑶时态错误

  动词时态的错误是高考英语书面表达中最常见的错误之一,也是考生运用语言的能力差的显著标志之一。如2002关于公园收不收门票的讨论的介绍,陈述讨论的语句通常用一般现在时:Sixty of the students of our school think it is unnecessary to charge an entrance fee. They think that;;不少考生表达为Some people thought that;;

  ⑷句子不完整

  在口语中,交际双方可借助手势、语气等来理解不完整的句子,可是书面语就不同了,句子结构不完整会令意思表达不清,这种情况常常发生在主句写完以后,又想加些补充说明时发生.例如: There are many ways to know the society. For example by TV ,radio ,newspaper and so on .应改为:There are many ways to know society, for example, by TV ,radio ,and newspaper.

  ⑸内容表达错误

  这种错误一般说来是审题不清所致。如2003年的书面表达,正确内容是:I've found a flat for you. It's a small one of 25 square meters with a bedroom, a bathroom and a kitchen. The house is near No 11 bus stop on Fang Cao Street and the school is at the next stop.有不少考生表达为:;I've found a flat of 25 square kilometers. It's in No.11 Fang Cao Street.;

  ⑹句子与句子之间缺少衔接造成意思过渡不平稳

  例如:把He worked hard. He failed the exam.改为He worked hard. However, he failed the exam.就比较好。

  ⑺习惯用语使用错误

  如:将 to my surprise表达为 to my surprised;将in my spare time 表达成 at my spare time; 将He didn’t lose heart though he failed.表达为He didn’t lose his heart though he failed.

  ⑻没有利用恰当的代词,给人于重复的感觉

  例如:把My father is a worker. My father works in a big company. 改为My father is a worker. He works in a big company. 就比较好。

  ⑼单词运用错误

  写作中常见考生因分不清单词的词性而产生错误。大致有:

  a.将vi.用成vt.如:come the city/return the place

  b.将adj.用成vt.如:Please present on time. Don't absent!

  c.将u.n.用成c.n.如:a good news/many informations

  d.将adj./adv.使用错误.如:in the recently years/study hardly;#p#分页标题#e#

  e.将prep.用成v.如:Many overpasses arounded the city. The road throughed the city.

  f.将名词的单/复数使用不当。如:There are lots of high building. // Most of the people have private car. 句中building应改为buildings;句中car应改为cars。

  g.句子的主谓不一致:如:A large number of beautiful buildings has been built. 句中has应改正为have。

  h.常用词拼写错误:如:beautiful写成beautful; believe写成belive; money写成moneny;

  i.在叙事文中通常会运用一般过去时态,所以就出现了动词的过去式,尤其是不规则动词的过去式的拼写错误很普遍的现象。如:visitted/ hurted/ writed/;..

  j.不定冠词的使用错误:如:send a e-mail to youan)/ Even a overpass has been built;an)/ He graduated from an university.a)

  k.虚词错误:①冠词的漏用和误用, 如:My father is worker. ②缺必要的连结词或连结词多余, 如:He likes swimming, I like climbing.

  ⑽不间断句子,即几个句子连在一起,看起来似乎是一个句子

  例如:There are many ways we get to know the outside world.应改为:There are many ways for us to learn about the outside world.或 There are many ways through which we can become acquainted with the outside world.

  ㈥如何提高书面表达的档次,争取得高分甚至满分?

  不少同学们可能很不理解:考试时,写出的书面表达要点齐全,表达也正确,可就是不知道为什么打不上高分。是啊,为什么呢?今天,我们就来研究如何解决这个问题。

  首先让我们来看近年来全国高考英语书面表达的评分标准:第五档很好):;覆盖所有主要内容;应用了较多的语法结构和词汇;语法结构或词汇方面有些许错误,但为尽力使用较复杂结构或较高级词汇所致;应用简单的语句间的连接成分,使全文结构紧凑;达到了预期的写作目的。;

  可见,高考书面表达评分标准在语言的运用上对考生提出了更高的要求。也就是说在考查考生语言准确性的基础上,进一步强调了用词的得体性、表达方式的多样性。如果同学们仅运用基础的词汇和基本的句型,不能体现出较强的语言运用能力,即使要点齐全,表达没有语法错误,也不能给人一种含金量高的审美享受,因此很难在考试的评分中得到较高档次。评分标准给我们传递了另外一个信息,如果有意识地使用较高级词汇或复杂结构,即使有些错误,也不扣分,仍属于较高档次。

  因此要使一个平淡的文章变得丰富起来,从而提高书面表达的档次。我认为同学们应着力于从以下三个方面来增强书面表达的效果。

  ⒈学会使用较高级的词汇

  词汇反映你知识贮存量的多少,也是衡量英语水平的一个重要标志。从评分标准可知,运用高级的词汇对提高书面表达的分数至关重要。大家先来看下面这些句子:#p#分页标题#e#

  ⑴Because the weather was good, our journey was comfortable.

  Thanks to the good weather, our journey was comfortable.

  ⑵We all think he is a great man.

  think highly of him.

  ⑶Suddenly I thought out a good idea. ;came upon;

  A good idea occurred to me. /A good idea suddenly struck me.

  ⑷The students there needn’t pay for their books.

  Books are free for the students there.

  ⑸As a result the plan was a failure.

  The plan turned out to be) a failure.

  ⑹When she heard he had died, she went pale with sorrow.

  At the news of his death, she went pale with sorrow.

  ⑺She went to Austria in order to study music.

  She went to Austria for/with the purpose of studying music.

  ⑻When he spoke, he felt more and more excited.

  The more he spoke, the more excited he felt.

  ⑼In our school, there are twenty–six classrooms.

  Our school is made up of twenty–six classrooms./Twenty–six classrooms make up our school.

  ⑽You can find my house easily.

  You’ll have no trouble/difficulty finding my house.

  ⒉学会使用较丰富的句式

  在整篇文章中,避免只使用一两个句型,要灵活运用各种语法结构,运用得当的句子结构可以给文章增色不少,从而使整篇文章因此而生辉。例如:

  ⑴When he arrives, please give me an e-mail.使用V-ing形式)

  →On his arriving/ arrival, please give me an e-mail.

  ⑵To his surprise, the little girl knows so many things.使用名词性从句)

  →What surprises him is that the little girl knows so many things.

  That the littler girl knows so many things surprises him./It surprises him that the littler girl knows so many things .)

  ⑶Though I’m weak, I’ll make the effort. 使用倒装句)

  →Weak as I am, I’ll make the effort.

  ⑷He did not know what had happened until he had read the news in the newspaper.使用强调句型 ①.It was;②.not until;)

  →①It was not until he had read the news in the newspaper that he knew what had happened.

  →②Not until he had read the news in the newspaper did he know what had happened.

  ⑸I passed the physics exam because of your help.使用虚拟语气)

  →①I could not have passed the physics exam but for your help.

  →②If you had not helped me, I could not have passed the physics exam.

  ⑹She walked out of the lab and many students followed her. 用过去分词)

  →Followed by many students, she walked out of the lab.

  ⑺They sang and laughed as they went back to school. 使用V-ing形式)

  →Singing and laughing, they went back to school.#p#分页标题#e#

  ⑻I won’t believe what he says. 使用状语从句)

  →No matter what he says, I won’t believe.

  ⑼If you study hard, you will make rapid progress.使用并列句)

  →Study hard and you’ll make rapid progress.

  ⑽He had no sooner come back from Beijing than he was sent abroad.使用倒装句)

  →No sooner had he come back from Beijing than he was sent abroad.

  ⒊学会使用恰当的连接词

  使用恰当连接词,对写出一篇有;英语味;的文章很重要,能使整篇文章上下衔接自然、紧凑,使文章有一定的流畅性,以使文章层次清晰,行文连贯。下面表格中是写作中经常用到的一些连接词。

  逻辑角度

  合适的过渡性词汇

  时间顺序

  first, second, then, finally/at last, immediately, suddenly , soon

  空间顺序

  here, there, on one side;on the other side, in front of, at the back of, next to

  对称顺序

  for one thing, for another thing, on one hand, on the other hand

  转折顺序

  but, however, while, though, otherwise

  因果顺序

  because, since, as, thanks to, as a result of)

  条件顺序

  as long as, so long as, on condition that, if, unless

  让步顺序

  though, as, even if/though, whether, whowhat, when, where)-ever

  递进顺序

  what’s more, besides, to make the matter worse, what’s worse

  过渡性插入语

  I think, I’m afraid, you know, As we all know

  

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