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过去分词作定语讲与练

来源:未知 2013-04-08 字体大小: 分享到:

  过去分词是非谓语动词的一种形式,表示完成和被动的动作。它在句子中可以充当表语、定语等成份。下面仅谈其作定语和表语的用法。

  一、过去分词作定语

  过去分词作定语有前置和后置两种情况。

  1、前置定语

  单个的过去分词作定语,通常放在被修饰的名词之前,表示被动和完成意义。

  A类:被动意义:

  an honored guest 一位受尊敬的客人

  The injured workers are now being taken good care of in the hospital.

  受伤的工人现正在医院受到良好的照料。

  B类:完成意义:

  a retired teacher 一位退休的教师

  They are cleaning the fallen leaves in the yard.

  他们正在打扫院子里的落叶。

  2、后置定语

  过去分词短语作定语时,通常放在被修饰的名词之后,它的作用相当于一个定语从句。如:

  This will be the best novel of its kind ever written =that has ever been written).

  这将是这类小说中写得最好的。

  Who were the so-called guests invited =who had been invited) to your party last night?

  昨晚被邀请参加你的晚会的那些所谓的客人是谁呀?

  二、过去分词作表语

  作表语的过去分词主要来自及物动词,在主-系-表句型中,说明主语所处的一种状态。其中系动词有包括be在内的多种形式。如:

  You seem frightened.

  你看样子受了惊吓。

  少数不及物动词如go, come, set)的过去分词也能作表语,但它们不表示被动意义,只是表示动作完成。如:

  They are gone for vacation.

  他们度假去了。

  注意:要区别;系动词+过去分词系表结构); 和 ;系动词+过去分词被动语态);。如:

  A. The library is now closed.

  图书馆现在关门了。

  B. The library is closed at six.

  图书馆经常在六点钟关门。

  说明:作表语用的过去分词表示主语的特点或所处的状态,强调主谓关系。这种结构中的过去分词前可加quite, very, rather等修饰词。系动词可有多种,表示不同的意义;被动语态表示动作,强调动宾关系,绝大多数被动结构中的行为执行者还可以用by短语来表示。因此,我们不难看出在上面两句中,A句是系表结构,B句是被动语态。

  从A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项。

  1. Most of the artists _____ to the party were from South Africa. MET 1990)

  A. invited B. to invite

  C. being invited D. had been invited

  2. The computer center, _____last year, is very popular among the students in this school. NMET 1993)

  A. open B. opening

  C. having opened D. opened

#p#分页标题#e#

  3. Cleaning women in big cities usually get _____ by the hour.NMET 1998)

  A. pay B. paying C. paid D. to pay

  4.—How do you deal with the disagreement between the company and the customers?

  —The key _____ the problem is to meet the demand _____ by the customers. 北京2002)

  A. to solving; making

  B. to solving; made

  C. to solve; making

  D. to solve; made

  5. Don’t use words, expressions, or phrases _____ only to people with specific knowledge.

  上海2002)

  A. being known B. having been known

  C. to be known D. known

  Key: 1-5 ADCBD

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下一篇:must,have got to 用法

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