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科普类阅读答题方法及策略

来源:未知 2013-04-08 字体大小: 分享到:

  【题型说明】科普知识类文章在高考试卷中是倍受青睐的又一宠儿。每年高考都有关于科普知识类阅读理解材料的考查。这类文章的特点是科技词汇多,句子长且结构复杂,理论性和逻辑性又都较强,再加之文章所介绍的知识对于同学们来说是比较陌生的。因此,同学们看这类文章觉得是雾里看花。

  【文章特点】科普类文章的主要特点:

  1. 文章中词汇的意义比较单一、稳定、简明,不带感情色彩,具有单一性和准确性的特点。综观整篇文章可以明显看出,它没有文学英语中常采用的排比、比喻、夸张等修饰手段,一词多义的现象也不多见。

  2. 句子结构较复杂,语法分析较困难。为了描述一个客观事物,严密地表达自己的思想,作者经常会使用集多种语法现象与一体的长句。

  3. 常使用被动语态,强调动作的承受者。

  4. 常使用双重否定句。

  【结构特点】科普知识类文章结构一般也是由标题Headlines),导语Introductions),背景 Background),主体Main body)和结尾Ends)五部分构成。标题是文章中心思想高度而又精辟的概括,高考这类阅读理解材料一般也不给标题,而要同学们选择标题。导语一般位于整篇文章的首段。背景交待一个事实的起因。主体则对导语概括的事实进行详细叙述。这一部分命题往往最多,因此,阅读时,同学们要把这部分作为重点。结尾往往也是中心思想的概括,并与导语相呼应,命题者常在此要设计一道推理判断题。

  【备考提醒】要做好这类阅读理解题,先要掌握这类文章的特点和结构,真正读懂并理解它。其次,工夫在课外,平时一定要多读科技幻想类文章,比如:太空与海洋、创造与发明、计算机发展、人类未来、动物世界等。特别是从网上搜寻一些取材原版、内容时新、语言鲜活的科技幻想类材料阅读。这样长期坚持,既可以增长知识、开阔视野,又可以扩充科技词汇,还能提高解答这种类型试题的能力。我们何乐而不为呢?

  【实例分析】阅读下面的文章,然后做后面的阅读理解题:

  Robots are smart. With their computer brains, they help people work in dangerous places or do difficult jobs. Some robots do regular jobs. Bobby, the mail carrier, brings mail to a large office building in Washington, D.C. He is one of 250 mail carriers in the United States.

  Mr. Leachim, who weighs two hundred pounds and is six feet tall, has some advantages as a teacher. One is that he does not forget details. He knows each child’s name, the parents’ names and what each child knows and needs to know. In addition, he knows each child’s pets and hobbies. Mr. Leachim does not make mistakes. Each child goes and tells him his or her name, then dials an identification number. His computer brain puts the child’s voice and number together. He identifies the child with no mistakes. Then he starts the lesson.#p#分页标题#e#

  Another advantage is that Mr. Leachim is flexible. If the children need more time to do their lessons they can move switches. In this way they can repeat Mr. Leachim’s lesson over and over again. When the children do a good job, he tells them something interesting about their hobbies. At the end of the lesson the children switch Mr. Leachim off.

  1. The first paragraph of the passage tells us _____.

  A. human beings are not as smart as robots

  B. robots will take the place of man to rule the earth

  C. we can only use robots to do some regular jobs

  D. robots can help people in many different ways

  2. Mr. Leachim’s _____ makes him a good teacher.

  A. knowledge B. appearance

  C. advantages D. energy

  3. What is the most important thing Mr. Leachim can do in his lessons?

  A. To meet the needs of each student.

  B. To talk to the students in different languages.

  C. To keep everyone’s interest in his lesson.

  D. To introduce more hobbies to the children.

  4. The word flexible in the last paragraph means _____.

  A. not strict B. not hard

  C. suitable D. changeable

  5. Which of the following statements may be true according to the passage?

  A. There are 250 robot teachers in the United States.

  B. Mr. Leachim is run and controlled by electricity.

  C. Bobby works in a large office building in Washington D.C.

  D. The lessons taught by Mr. Leachim are given on a TV set.

  【答案与解析】文章主要讲的是机器人可以以不同的方式帮助人类。

  1. D。主旨大意题。从With their computer brains, they help people work in dangerous places or do different jobs. Some robots do regular jobs可知机器人可以做各种不同的工作,能以各种方式帮助人类,故答案选D。

  2. C。事实细节题。从Mr. Leachim, who weighs two hundred pounds and is six feet tall, has some advantages as a teacher可知答案C正确。

  3. A。推理判断题。从Another advantage is that Mr. Leachim is flexible可知他非常的灵活,可满足每个学生的要求,故答案选A。

  4. D。词汇猜测题。 从文章最后一段可知学生可以根据需要有选择地运用Mr. Leachim, 可见flexible是形容Mr. Leachim很灵活,富有变化,即答案选D。

  5. B。事实细节题。从文章最后一句话At the end of the lesson the children switch Mr. Leachim off可知答案B正确。

  

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