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文章的细节理解

来源:未知 2013-04-08 字体大小: 分享到:

  一篇文章有了话题topic),确定了要表达的中心思想main idea), 还必须通过许多细节的信息来进一步解释或表达主题,体现中心思想。弄懂这些细节,对于理解全文的作用是不容忽视的,也是归纳、概括文章中心思想的基础。因此,在高考命题中往往会要求考生根据不同的要求,阅读文章以获得某些特定的信息或准确地寻找所需的细节。这类考题 可以是比较直接的,理解字面意义就可以答题;但也可能是比较间接的,要通过归纳、综合或推理才能答题。

  例1

  Tom Brenna was working in a Philadelphia office building when he noticed a black bag. The bag contained a book.

  This chance discovery ended a 12-day search by the Library Company of Philadelphia for a historical treasure – a 120-page diary kept 190 years ago by Deborah Logan, ;a woman who knew everybody in her day,; James Green, the librarian told the magazine American Libraries.

  Most of the diary is a record of big events in Philadelphia. It is also includes a description of British soldiers burning Washington, D.C. in the war of 1812. She describes President James Madison on horseback as ;perfectly shaking with fear; during the troubled days. George Washington, she writes, mistook her for the wife of a French man, and praised her excellent English.

  The adventure of the lost book began September 4 when Cory Luxmoore arrived from England to deliver the diary of his ancestor 祖先) to the library Company, which he and his wife considered to be best home for the diary.

  Green told American Libraries he had the diary in his possession ;about five minutes; when Luxmoore took it back because he had promised to show it to one other person. On returning his hotel after showing the precious book to Green, Luxmoore was shocked to realise that he had left it in the taxi.

  Without any delay, Green began calling every taxi company in the city, with no luck. ;I’ve felt sick since then,; Luxmoore told reporters.

  According to Green, no one has yet learned how the diary came to the office building. Tom Brennan received a reward of $1,000, Philadelphia gained another treasure for hit history. And Luxmoore told reporters, ;It’s wonderful news. I’m on high.;

  1. From the text, we learn that the diary is now owned by _______.

  A. Tom Brenna B. an unknown person

  C. a Philadelphia magazine C. the library Company of Philadelphia

  2. Philadelphia is thought to be the best home for the diary because ________.

  A. it was written in Philadelphia

  B. it tells stories about Philadelphia

  C. people in the city are interested in old things

  D. the British and Americans once fought in Philadelphia

  3. Which of the following shows the right order of what happened to the diary?#p#分页标题#e#

  a. Tom Brennan found the book in an office building

  b. The book was shown to James Green

  c. Cory Luxmoore arrived from England

  d. The book was left behind in a taxi

  A. a, b, c, d B. c, b, d, a C. a, c, d, b D. c, a, b, d

  注释:

  第3小题是掌握文章细节的第一种情况,即获取信息是比较直接的,理解字面意义就可以答题,正确答案显然是B.

  第1和2 小题属掌握文章细节的第二种情况,即信息获取是比较间接的,要通过归纳、综合或推理才能答题。第1题通过文章所给的两个信息This chance discovery ended a 12-day search by the Library Company of Philadelphia for a historical treasure; ; The adventure of the lost book began September 4 when Cory Luxmoore arrived from England to deliver the diary of his ancestor 祖先) to the library Company, which he and his wife considered to be best home for the diary.判断正确答案是D. 第2小题通过Most of the diary is a record of big events in Philadelphia.确定正确答案是B.

  以上介绍的是处理文章细节的一般方法,在实际解题时还应注意以下两个问题:

  1. 解题时应认真阅读题干和文章中的有关细节,以确保所选答案与文章提供的信息完全一致。

  例2

  We usually say that people have five senses. Senses are the way that we learn what is happening around us. The five senses are sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell.

  Each sense depends on a special organ of the body. This organ receives the information and then the nerves send this information to the brain. For example, eyes control sight. Ears control hearing, and skin controls touch. Taste depends on the taste buds on the tongue, and smell depends on the nose.

  In addition, there are also other senses which are equally as important. There is a sense of balance which stops us from falling down. We also have senses of hunger, thirst, and heat and cold.

  We may conclude from the passage that all senses are greatly controlled by _____.

  A. the nerves in the hands B. the brain

  C. a special organ of the human body D. the eyes, ears, and nose

  注释:

  许多学生不加思索地选择了C. 其根据是句中出现了Each sense depends on a special organ of the body. 这里,他们忽略了两点:1)题干是; that all senses are greatly controlled by ; 而并非each sense 2)文章中在Each sense depends on a special organ of the body.句后还有 This organ receives the information and then the nerves send this information to the brain. 因此,正确选项应为B.

  例3

  Lakeland, Florida, April 29 --- two cars dropped from sight, falling into the bottom of a 30-foot deep sinkhole which appeared suddenly. At a town 13 miles from Lakeland, two bedrooms of one house dropped into a hole 60 feet across and 35 feet deep. Part of the next house hung dangerously over the hole.#p#分页标题#e#

  Sinkholes have been happening without warning in this part for years. So far there is no way to predict 预告) when or where one will appear. But when one does, others usually follow in the same area, usually along a straight line.

  The worst sinkhole in recent years appeared in 1965. It was 70 feet across and 150 feet deep. I t destroyed one house, damaged several others and broke the walls of a city block.

  One hole, 15 feet deep, opened up this year in the middle of a highway 19 seconds after a car had driven by. Others in the same area took place at night damaging houses, swallowing吞没) up trees and parts of streets and making 23 frightened persons run away from their homes in night clothes.

  Sinkholes happen when the weather is dry. The earth at the surface begins to drop into empty space under the ground, like sand falling in huge hourglass沙漏) . This is how a sinkhole is formed.

  When one sinkhole appears, others usually follow _______.

  A. everywhere B. on a straight highway only

  C. nearby D. in the places far away

  注释:

  此题许多学生错选为B.其原因是将原文中But when one does, others usually follow in the same area, usually along a straight line.)usually along a straight line 与选项B on a straight highway only 等同起来。故正确选项为C,根据是; others usually follow in the same area。

  例4

  People in the Middle East use a special pot for holding drinking water. This pot allows water to be slowly absorbed 吸收) by the clay 粘土). As the absorbed water reaches the outer surface of the pot, it evaporates quickly because of the dry air. Because evaporation 蒸发) water absorbs heat from their surroundings, evaporation acts as a cooling process 过程). This process, in turn, cools the pot. The pot then cools the water held in the pot. Thus, we have an ;air-powered cooler;; the clay also absorbs some of the dirt it the water, thus making it taste purer.

  This type of pot has various shapes in different parts of the Middle East.

  The ;zeer; in Egypt comes to a point at the bottom. Since it does not have a flat bottom, it is usually supported in wooden or metal holder. The water that has reached the surface of the pot runs down the sides of the pot and drips 滴) off the pointed bottom.

  1 Where does the zeer work as a water cooler?

  A. In East Asia B. In any place in the world

  C. In places where it is hot and dry D. In places where there is plenty of water

  2.Which is the right order for showing how the zeer works as a water cooler?

  a. The clay cools

  b. Water goes through the clay and reaches the outer surface

  c. The pot cools

  d. The water cools

  e. Water evaporates to the air around it

  f. The evaporating water absorbs the heat around it#p#分页标题#e#

  A. b, e, f, a, c, d B. f, a, b, e, d, c C. b, e, f, a, d, c D. f, a, b, d, c, e

  注释

  第1小题如选择A就错了,原因是题干中Where does the zeer work as a water cooler?) work 的含义是;起作用;,因此正确选项为C.

  第2小题应注意原文的叙述方式与选项表达的不同,要进行适当的推理才能判断出正确选项A.)

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