哈里波特电影系列的走红, 原因很多. 其中一个重大原因之一就在于其原著情节的跌宕起伏, 英伦式的幽默对话, 以及精湛的文字表述, 仅凭这些, 就赢得了无数铁杆粉丝的追捧拥护. 作者对于关键片断的节奏把握可说得上是炉火纯青, 时而流畅快速, 时而蛰伏待发. 而细观其中奥妙, 如此浑然天成的叙述中, 作者反复使用的一种写作手法, 就是英语中的独立主格现象, 在的第六课中首次出现.
The silence was suddenly broken when a large car,
with its headlights on and its horn blaring,
roared down the arcade.
此句为全文第二段的首句. 由于开篇第一段描写的是一番静谧悠然的伦敦清晨街景, 第二段开头的这一句中那辆车子的出现, 一下子就将故事情节推入了一场紧张的, 连续发生的事件当中. 其中逗号之间的部分就是独立主格现象, 在句中针对那辆大轿车进行新闻速递般地描写, 突出其怪异的行为.
之所以称为 独立 主格, 是由于独立主格中的逻辑主语与句中主语并不一致, 如课文中这句的主语是a large car, 而独自主格部分的主语分别是its headlights和its horn.
一般说来, 独立主格由两大基本元件构成, 首先是名词或者代词; 其次, 针对名词进行描写的是分词, 形容词, 副词, 或者介词短语等, 课文句中在两个独立主语后方分别出现了副词性的on和分词blaring. 在名词的前方, 有时也可以添加with, 强调伴随意味.
这样的组合在含义上可以看作是一个 主谓 的关系, 如例句中所示:
its headlights on;
its horn blaring .
但由于缺少真正的谓语动词, 所以这种结构不能算是一个完整句子. 不过也正由于它在形式上缺失谓语动词, 因此在表达上更显得凝练. 而行文的精简凝练在特定场合下, 就是高速推进故事情节发展的关键因素之所在.
以下就选取Harry Potter系列小说中的第一部Harry Potter and the Philosopher s Stone中的精彩片断, 与大家分享独立主格的魅力.
I. 名词 现在分词
Chapter Three --- Letters from No One
Harry picked it up and stared at it, his heart twanging like a giant elastic band. No one, ever, in his whole life, had written to him. Who would? He had no friends, no other relatives --- he didn t belong to the library so he d never even got rude notes asking for books back. Yet here it was, a letter, addressed so plainly there could be no mistake:
Mr. H. Potter
The Cupboard under the Stairs
4 Privet Drive
点评: 请注意划线部分的结构. 原句的主语是Harry, 逗号之后结构的逻辑
主语为his heart, 由于后半句的动词是非谓语动词家族中的现在分词
激动兴奋之情. 小Harry从小生活在姨妈姨父家中, 饱受他们全家人的
欺凌, 对于一个在家没有亲情, 在外没有朋友的11岁小孩子来说, 他的
小世界仅限于楼梯下那方小小的, 爬满了蜘蛛和灰尘的储物柜, 因此, 他
一直觉得自己是被世界所遗忘的. 而突然间, 有个陌生人给他来信, 信封
上不仅注明了他的姓名, 还清楚地说明了他所居住的具体地址, 具体得
让人不敢相信, 他的惊讶之情, 激动之心, 自然明了.
回过头来重新审视一下课文中的原句, 有没有察觉出独立主格的使用对于当时紧张的突发事件有推波助澜的精妙作用呢? 如果将a large car后方的独立主格换成定语从句, 在含义上不变, 但是在行文的节奏步调上就被从句繁琐的用词牵绊住了.
看了分析对比之后, 请大家自行完成下列语段的, 请关注划线部分的独立主格现象, 并细细体会其对于整体语流速度控制的重要贡献.
同样是 名词 现在分词 的结构:
Chapter Five --- Diagon Alley
Good afternoon, said a soft voice. Harry jumped. Hagrid must have jumped, too, because there was a loud crunching noise and he got quickly off the spindly chair.
An old man was standing before them, his wide, pale eyes shining like moons through the gloom of the shop.
Hello, said Harry awkwardly.
Ah yes, said the man. Yes, yes. I though I d be seeing you soon. Harry Potter. It wasn t a question. You have your mother s eyes. It seems only yesterday she was in here herself, buying her first wand. Ten and a quarter inches long, swishy, made of willow. Nice wand for charm work.
II. 名词 介词短语
Chapter Thirteen --- Nicolas Flamel
Herminone jumped to her feet. She hadn t looked so excited since they d got back the marks for their very first piece of homework.
Stay there! She said, and she sprinted up the stairs to the girl s dormitories. Harry and Ron barely had time to exchange mystified looks before she was dashing back, an enormous old book in her arms.
I never thought to look in here! She whispered excitedly. I got this out of the library weeks ago for a bit of light reading.
Chapter Fifteen --- The Forbidden Forest
Do you not see that unicorn? Firenze bellowed at Bane. Do you not understand why it was killed? Or have the planets not let you in on that secret? I set myself against what is lurking in this Forest, Bane, yes, with human alongside me if I must.
And Firenze whisked around, with Harry clutching on as best he could, they plunged off into the trees, leaving Ronan and Bane behind them.
III. 名词 过去分词
Chapter Thirteen --- Nicolas Flamel
Up in the air, Snape turned on his broomstick just in time to see something scarlet shoot past him, missing him by inches --- next second, Harry had pulled out of the dive, his arm raised in triumph, the Snitch clasped in his hand.
The stands erupted; it had to be a record, no one could even remember the Snitch being caught so quickly.
IV. 名词 副词
Chapter Nine --- The Midnight Duel
Come back, boy! She shouted, but Neville was rising straight up like a cork shot out of a bottle --- twelve feet --- twenty feet. Harry saw his scared white face look down at the ground falling away, saw him gasp, slip sideways off the broom and ---
WHAM --- a thud and a nasty crack and Neville lay, face down, on the grass in a heap. His broomstick was still rising higher and higher and started to drift lazily towards the Forbidden Forest and out of sight.