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《新概念英语》中因果关系

来源:101教育网整理 2016-08-18 字体大小: 分享到:

  Purposes: to answer questions like why is this happening? , what is the effect, or result, of this? , What is the cause of this? , writing a causal analysis to explore a cause-and-effect relationship

  Features:

  1. more than reporting a chronological order of events

  2. making projects exploring how and why changes occur

  Procedures to tackle the problem:

  1. seek to understand why events occurred by identifying the factors that led up to them

  2. distinguish sufficient causes from necessary causes

  sufficient cause: one that must occur for the effect to take place

  necessary cause: one that can result in the effect. When we face some complicated questions and problems, we often are unable to identify sufficient causes so we must speculate about necessary causes.

  3. possible ways out:

  Because academic readers are sensitive to the complexity of most issues, they generally do not expect you to offer sufficient causes for complex problems. Instead, they expect you to speculate about possible causes and effects, while limiting the scope of your claims with qualifiers such as usually, may, possible, sometimes, or most. No simple answer, no sufficient cause, can explain, for example, why some people become violent criminals or serial killers while others devote themselves to feeding the hungry or serving the helpless.

  n Writing Skills:

  1. Introduce your topic

  Your introduction will generally highlight the significance of your topic and the proceed from given information to new information . Before you write a lengthy introduction, consider what the information readers already take for granted. Some research work is necessary, since you need to make your writing worth reading by some new information and some insights to understand the information.

  You may provide an overview of your purpose for writing about causes and effects and present forecasting statements

  Please do not:

  1. state your purpose in a sentence like The purpose of my essay is for it is really boring if all essays started in this manner.

  2. always mention explicitly how you have organized a document like: in this paper I will present the positive and negative effects of television on children.

  if your subject is likely to threaten the beliefs of your audience or if it is an inherently emotional subject, you may occasionally find it important to establish a credible persona first, by reviewing what your readers are likely to believe about a causal relationship, and them by starting your own opinion.

  2. Appeal to your readers senses

  You can help your readers imagine your subjects better by appealing to their senses. The lifeblood of effective writing is concrete and sensory language. A word, properly placed, can create a tone that angers or inspires a reader. Knowing the power of language to promote change, effective writers are selective in their use of concrete words , and sensory words Selecting the right word or group of words is a crucial step in drawing your readers into your work so that they can fully understand your vision and ideas. Also, you may use powerful images and metaphors if possible.

  3. Humanize abstract issues

  Remember, you are writing to other people. So when you sense the human story is being lost in abstract figures or academic jargon, consider adding an anecdote of how the problem you are discussing effects upon other people. As you write drafts of your causal report, consider incorporating an anecdote, that is, a brief story about how people are influenced by your subject. For example, if you are researching the effects of a sluggish economy on our nation s poor, you might want to flesh out your statistics by depicting the story of how one homeless family lost their jobs, income, medical benefits, houses, community, hope.

  4. Refine your language

  Cut away the superfluous words, redundancies, and needless abstractions.

  You can make your language more interesting and more understandable by eliminating needless jargon; passive voice; lengthy, redundant sentences; or pompous and archaic language.

  If you use excessive jargon, write extensively in the passive voice, fail to offer specific examples to illustrate your point, or do not elaborate on essential information, then some readers might consider you to be aloof or pompous.

    
  
  
  

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