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从《新概念》看英语写作的variety

来源:101教育网整理 2016-08-18 字体大小: 分享到:

  我们在中,通过对英语和汉语两种语言进行比较发现:汉语语言更注重重复美,而英语语言更注重变化美。

  所谓 英语的变化美 ,就是在同一段落或同一篇文章里,如果同一个概念重复出现,那西方人往往会挖掘并寻觅其形形色色的同义表达或近义表达,并对这些表达进行灵活运用,使它们交替出现并分布在段落或文章的各个地方,从而使得语言变化多姿、参差错落,同时也避免了重复用词的呆板和沉闷。相比之下,汉语中相同表达重复出现的频率比较高,有时汉语甚至会刻意重复用词,从而取得语言均衡美和整齐美的效果。

  所以在写英语文章的时候,如果能多注意 英语语言的变化美 ,必然能使整篇文章增色不少。这样的例子《》课本中俯首即是,最典型的要属《》第59课 Collecting 《收藏》这篇文章:

  People tend to amass possessions, sometimes without being aware of doing so. Indeed they can have a delightful surprise when they find something useful which they did not know they owned. Those who never have to move house become indiscriminate collectors of what can only be described as clutter. They leave unwanted objects in drawers, cupboards and attics for years, in the belief that they may one day need just those very things. As they grow old, people also accumulate belongings for two other reasons, lack of physical and mental energy, both of which are essential in turning out and throwing away, and sentiment. Things owned for a long time are full of associations with the past, perhaps with relatives who are dead, and so they gradually acquire a value beyond their true worth.

  Some things are collected deliberately in the home in an attempt to avoid waste. Among these I would list string and brown paper, kept by thrifty people when a parcel has been opened, to save buying these two requisites. Collecting small items can easily become a mania. I know someone who always cuts sketches out from newspapers of model clothes that she would like to buy if she had the money. As she is not rich, the chances that she will ever be able to afford such purchases are remote; but she is never sufficiently strong-minded to be able to stop the practice. It is a harmless habit, but it litters up her desk to such an extent that every time she opens it, loose bits of paper fall out in every direction.

  Collecting as a serous hobby is quite different and has many advantages. It provides relaxation for leisure hours, as just looking at one's treasures is always a joy. One does not have to go outside for amusement, since the collection is housed at home. Whatever it consists of, stamps, records, first editions of books, china, glass, antique furniture, pictures, model cars, stuffed birds, toy animals, there is always something to do in connection with it, from finding the right place for the latest addition, to verifying facts in reference books. This hobby educates one not only in the chosen subject, but also in general matters which have some bearing on it. There are also other benefits. One wants to meet like-minded collectors, to get advice, to compare notes, to exchange articles, to show off the latest find. So one's circle of friends grows. Soon the hobby leads to travel, perhaps to a meeting in another town, possibly a trip abroad in search of a rare specimen, for collectors are not confined to any one country. Over the years, one may well become an authority on one's hobby and will very probably be asked to give informal talks to little gatherings and then, if successful, to larger audiences. In this way self-confidence grows, first from mastering a subject, then from being able to take about it. Collecting, by occupying spare time so constructively, makes a person contented, with no time for boredom.

  1.表示动作 收藏 的词:

  amass、own、become collectors of、accumulate、collect、keep、house

  2.表示名词 收藏品 或 收藏的东西 的词:

  possessions、objects、belongings、things、items、treasures、collection、addition、articles、find

  3.同一句话中表示 价值 的词: value、worth

  4.前后两句话中表示 购买 的词: buy、purchases

  5.表示 益处 的词:advantages、benefits

  6.表示 娱乐、乐趣 的词:relaxation、joy、amusement

  7.表示 和 有关 的短语:in connection with、have some bearing on

  8.同一句话中表示 事物 的词:subject, matters

  9.同一句话中表示 可能 的词:perhaps 、possibly

  10.同一句话中表示 听众 的词:gatherings、audiences

  通过上文的罗列,我们可以发现,在这篇文章里,作者大胆地探索并尝试 英语语言的变化美 ,通过34处考虑周密的同义表达和近义表达的交替使用,使得整篇文章显得灵动巧妙、精彩鲜活,给人以美的享受。更多《》课本中有关 英语语言变化美 的例子如下分享一二:

  1)The captain of the Elkor ordered his men to salvage as much as possible from the wreck. Nothing of value was found, but the numerous items which were brought to the surface proved to be of great interest. From a heavy gun that was raised, the captain realized that the ship must have been a cruiser.

  埃尔科 号船长命令船员们尽量从沉船中打捞物品,但没发现什么值钱的东西,不过打捞出来的众多的物品还是引起了大家极大的兴趣。从捞起的一门大炮来看,船长认为那艘船一定是艘巡洋舰。(新概念第三册,L32)

  分析:句中的 salvage 、 be brought to the surface 和 be raised 表达同一概念。

  2)As the parents had five children, life was a perpetual struggle against poverty. They were expecting their sixth child and were faced with even more pressing economic problems. If they had only had one more child, the fact would have passed unnoticed. They would have continued to struggle against economic odds and would have lived in obscurity.

  家里已有5个孩子,全家人常年在贫困中挣扎。第6个孩子即将问世,他们面临着更为严峻的经济问题。如果他们只添了1个孩子,这件事本来就不会引起任何人的注意。这家人会继续为克服经济上的拮据而奋斗,并默默无闻地活下去。

  分析:句中的 poverty 、 economic problems 和 economic odds 表达同一概念。

    
  
  
  

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