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新概念英语第三册答疑精选二

来源:101教育网整理 2016-08-18 字体大小: 分享到:

  什么叫从句??

  什么是定语从句??

1 从句就是复合句.

  2 定语从句(Attributive Clauses)在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词,词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。

  请看以下详解:

  关系代词有:who, whom, whose, that, which等。

  关系副词有:when, where, why等。

  关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分。关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。

  1)who, whom, that

  这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中所起作用如下:

  Is he the man who/that wants to see you?

  他就是你想见的人吗?(who/that在从句中作主语)

  He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday.

  他就是我昨天见的那个人。(whom/that在从句中作宾语)

  2) Whose 用来指人或物, cover is green. 请递给我那本绿皮的书。

  3)which, that

  它们所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等,例如:

  A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside. 农村出现了前所未有的繁荣。(which / that在句中作主语)

  The package you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. 你拿的包快散了。 one must yield. 任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。

  Beijing is the place where I was born. 北京是我的出生地。

  Is this the reason why he refused our offer? 这就是他拒绝我们帮助他的理由吗?

  4)that代替关系副词

  that可以用于表示时间、地点、方式、理由的名词后取代when, where, why和 介词 which 引导的定语从句,在中that常被省略,例如:

  His father died the year he was born. 他父亲在他出生那年逝世了。

  He is unlikely to find the place he lived forty years ago. 他不大可能找到他四十年前居住过的地方。

  判断关系代词与关系副词

  方法一: 用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系代词;而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。例如:

  This is the mountain village where I stayed last year.

  I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you.

  判断改错(注:先显示题,再显示答案,横线;用不同的颜色表示出。)

  (错) This is the mountain village where I visited last year.

  (错) I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside.

  (对) This is the mountain village I visited last year.

  (对) I'll never forget the days I spent in the countryside.

  习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词 where, when联系在一起。此两题错在关系词的误用上。

  方法二: 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分,也能正确选择出关系代词/关系副词。

  例1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days age?

  A. where B. that C. on which D. the one

  例2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held.

  A. where B. that C. on which D. the one

  答案:例1 D,例2 A

  例1变为肯定句: This museum is ___ you visited a few days ago.

  例2变为肯定句: This is the museum ___ the exhibition was held.

  在句1中,所缺部分为宾语,而where, that, on which都不能起到宾语的作用,只有the one既做了主句的表语,又可做从句的宾语,可以省略关系代词,所以应选D。

  而句2中, 主、谓、宾俱全,从句部分为句子的状语表地点,既可用副词where,又因 in the museum词组,可用介词in which 引导地点状语。而此题中,介词on 用的不对,所以选A。

  关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语时,选择关系代词 ; 先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词 。

  1) 定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它主句意思往往不明确;非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明,去掉了也不会影响主句的意思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开,例如:

  This is the house which we bought last month. 这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。(限制性)

  The house, which we bought last month, is very nice.这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的。(非限制性)

  2) 当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时,其后的定语从句通常是非限制性的,例如:

  Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year. 查理 史密斯去年退休了,他曾经是我的老师。

  My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden. 我去年买的的那幢房子带着个漂亮的花园。

  This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching. 这本小说很动人,我已经读了三遍。

  3) 非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从句谓语动词要用第三人称单数,例如:

  He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me. 他似乎没抓住我的意思,这使我心烦。

  Liquid water changes to vapor, which is called evaporation. 液态水变为蒸汽,这就叫做蒸发。

  说明:关系代词that和关系副词why不能引导非限制性定语从句。

  1)介词后面的关系词不能省略。

  2)that前不能有介词。

  3) 某些在从句中充当时间,地点或原因状语的 介词 关系词 结构可以同关系副词when 和where 互换。

  This is the house in which I lived two years ago.

  This is the house where I lived two years ago.

  Do you remember the day on which you joined our club?

  Do you remember the day when you joined our club?

  由as, which 引导的非限定性定语从句,as和which可代整个主句,相当于and this或and that。As一般放在句首,which在句中。

  As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health.

  The sun heats the earth, which is very important to us.

  典型例题

  1)Alice received an invitation from her boss, ___came as a surprise.

  A. it B. that C. which D. he

  答案C. 此为非限定性从句,不能用 that修饰,而用which.,it 和he 都使后句成为句子,两个独立的句子不能单以逗号连接。况且选he句意不通。

  2)The weather turned out to be very good, ___ was more than we could expect.

  A. what B. which C. that D. it

  答案B。which可代替句子,用于非限定性定语从句,而what不可。That 不能用于非限定性定语从句,it不为连词,使由逗号连接的两个句子并在一起在英语语法上行不通。

  3)It rained hard yesterday, ____ prevented me from going to the park..

  A. that B. which C. as D. it

  答案B.

  as 和which在引导非限制性定语从句时,这两个关系代词都指主句所表达的整个意思,且在定语从句中都可以作主语和宾语。但不同之处主要有两点:

    
  
  
  

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