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《新概念英语》句型的灵活运用二

来源:101教育网整理 2016-08-18 字体大小: 分享到:

  1. The following day, however, the doctor consoled him by telling him that his chances of being able to leave hospital in time for New Year Celebrations were good.

  句型解剖:sb s chances of doing sth are good 某人做某事的可能性很大

  该例句的后半部分,即 that 引导的宾语从句部分,意思就是:他能离开医院回去过新年的可能性很大。其中 chances 一词解释为 可能性;很有可能发生的事情 ,一般作复数。而句末的 good 是修饰 chances 一词,在这里作表语,引申为 (可能性)很大 ;如果是 可能性不大 可以把 good 改成 remote 或者是 slim 。整个短语还能变形为:The chances that are good. 或者The chances are good that (其中that引导的是 chances 一词的同位语从句)。

  另外再补充些有关 chance 作为 可能性 的短语:

  There is a chance of / that . 某事很有可能

  There is a remote chance of / that . 某事不大有可能

  Chances are that 某事发生很有可能

  The chances are ten to one that 事情十有八九会

  sb have a chance of doing sth 某人很有可能做某事

  sb have no chance of doing sth 某人不大有可能做某事

  sb s chances of are greatly improved / increased某人做某事的可能性大大地增加了

  sb s chances of are greatly reduced某人做某事的可能性大大地减小了

  另外,英语中的 odds 一词也能用来表示 可能性 代替 chances 一词。具体例句参考下文最后两句例句。

  联想运用: 1) 看现在这种情形,他很有可能被吵鱿鱼。

  Considering the current situation, his chances of being fired are good.

  2) 根据我的经验,这种植物很少能有捱过冬天的。

  According to my experience, the chances of the plant of surviving the winter are remote.

  3) 比尔已经向哈佛大学申请助教职位,但他得到它的可能性很小。

  Bill has applied to Harvard University for a teaching assistantship, but his chances of getting it are remote.

  4) 因为她不是很富裕,他买得起这些服装的可能性十分渺茫。

  As she is not rich, the chances that she will ever be able to afford such purchases are remote.

  可以改成

  As she is not rich, the chances are remote that she will ever be able to afford such purchases.

  5) 因此,我到革命的中国的希望相当小了,然而我并没有放弃努力来争取一张护照,使我得以访问社会主义国家。

  So my chances of getting to revolutionary China are pretty slim, although I have not given up my efforts to get a passport, which will enable me to visit the countries of Socialism.

  6) 这天很有可能会下雨。

  There is a chance of rain.

  7) 那工人认为,如果他拆不开那台机器,那么很可能厂里的别的人也拆不开。

  The worker held that if he was unable to take the medicine apart, the chances were that no other worker in the plant could, either.

  8) 我们十有八九会赢。

  The chances are ten to one that we will win.

  9) 她很有可能过考试。

  She has a chance of passing the exam.

  = Her chances of passing the exam are good.

  = The chances that she will pass the exam are good.

  = The chances are good that she will pass the exam.

  10) 当你目标明确,你成功的可能性就大大地增加了。

  When you have a clear aim, your chances of success are greatly improved / increased.

  11) 你能告诉我他被当选为总统的可能性是增加了还是减小了?

  Could you tell me his chances of being elected president are improved or reduced?

  12) 她可能会同意。

  The odds are that she will give her consent.

  13) 我们最可能死亡的年龄在65至80岁之间。

  There are heavy odds in favour of our dying between the ages of sixty-five and eighty.

  2. Farm labourers said that they always woke up to find that work had been done overnight.

  句型解剖: to do 不定式 的特殊涵义

  如何翻译不定式 to find that work had been done overnight 是正确理解这句话含义的关键所在。一般的不定式可以在句中充当目的状语,按照这样的译法,整句话的意思就是 农村里的工人说他们常常一早醒来,为了(目的)发现有人已经在夜里把活全干了 ;但这样的译法似乎又不符合逻辑。所以让我们来重新认识一下英语中的不定式。

  其实英语中的不定式既可以充当 目的状语 ,也能够充当 结果状语 ;充当目的状语的时候可以放在句首也可以放在句末,而充当结果状语的时候只能放在句末,并且一般用于表示 事与愿违或没有料到的结果 ,多半带有些不好的、失望沮丧的感情色彩;这时也可以在不定式to do前面加上 only 一词,仅为了加语气。表达 only to 通常翻译为 竟然 ; 往往却 ; 结果却 。试比较:

  I ve come to pick up my son. 我来接我儿子。(目的状语)

  What have I said (only)to make you so sad? 我说了什么使你那么难受啊?(结果状语)

  经过这些分析后,再回到上述例句,它应当翻译为:农场的工人常常醒来,结果却发现有人在一夜之间把所有的活都干了。

  联想运用:1) 防盗警报器在白天黑夜的任何时候都会响起来,结果却骚扰了过路人,同时也帮助窃贼入室行窃。

  Burglar alarms going off at any time of the day or night serve only to annoy passers-by and actually assist burglars to burgle. (,L47)

  注意:句话中的短语 only to annoy ..and assist 在这里充当的是结果状语而不是目的状语。如果看成目的状语的话,翻译起来就相当别扭: 防盗警报器在白天黑夜的任何时候都会响起来,目的就是去骚扰过路人,同时也为了帮助窃贼入室行窃 。很明显,这样的翻译在逻辑上也是行不通的。

  2) 在轨道上运行的卫星总是要飞离地球,而结果总是被地心引力拉回来。

  The satellite traveling in the orbit is always escaping from the earth only to be pulled back by gravity.

  3) 女孩子长大以后结果却嫁到别人家给人家生孩子了。

  Girls grow up only to marry into somebody else s family and bear children.

  4 )这个罪犯偷偷逃出了监狱大门,(结果)淹没在伦敦的大雾中。

  The felon slipped out the main prison gate, to be swallowed up in the British fog.

  5 )简一路飞奔回去,结果却得知自己的母亲已经在医院去世了。

  Jane dashed back only to know her mother dead in hospital.

  6) 那女孩去海边游泳却不幸被淹死了。

  The girl went to the seaside only to be drowned.

  7) 她从这次空难中幸存下来却不幸喝水时呛死了。

  She survived the air crash only to be choked by water.

  8) 为了买那只据说能下金蛋的母鸡,他几乎卖掉所有家当,没想到这只鸡连一般的蛋也不会下。

  He spent almost all his fortune on the hen which was said to be able to lay gold eggs, only to find it could not lay eggs at all.

  9) 凡事我们视而不见;凡事我们逃之夭夭;凡事我们不是否认就是贬低

  或蔑视,那么凡此种种却往往会打败我们。

  Everything we shut our eyes to, everything we run away from, everything we deny, denigrate or despise, serves to defeat us in the end.

  3. Everyone went to the funeral, for the ghost was none other than Eric Cox, a third brother who was supposed to have died as a young man.

  句型解剖:do sth as a young man 年轻时候做某事

  as 在这里是作介词使用,翻译为 当某人是(某身份)时 。有了 as ,就可以避免 when 的频繁使用。如果这句话不用 as a young man 来表示 当某人年轻时 ,一般我们只能想到用 when sb was young 这个表达。同样,当我们说 当我是个大学生、在我大学时代 ,我们也不必按照往常的思路说 when I was a university student 或 during my university days , 而是可以说 as a university student 。

  联想运用:1) 昨天下午弗兰克霍金斯向我讲述了他年轻时候的经历。

  Yesterday afternoon Frank Hawkins was telling me about his experience as a young man. (,L31)

  而这句话按照一般思路则是:Yesterday afternoon Frank Hawkins was telling me about his experience when he was a young man.

  2) 在退休前,弗兰克是一家非常大的商业公司的经理,但他小时候却在一家小铺里做工。

  Before he retired, Frank was the head of a very large business company, but as a boy he used to work in a small shop. (,L31)

  这句话的中文里提到了 小时候 ,按照一般的思路往往会翻译成:in one s childhood或者when sb was young;但作者这里使用了 as a boy 来表达,可谓和上文的 as a young man 有着异曲同工之妙!

  3) 你有没有读过《青年艺术家的肖像》?

  Have you ever read the book A portrait of the artist as a young man?

  4) 当我是高中生的时候,我最喜欢体育。

  I was keen on sports as a senior high school student.

  而这句话按照一般思路则是:I was keen on sports when I was a senior high school student.

  5) 当他还是个9岁的男孩时,他因为一场悲剧性的事故而失去了双腿。

  He suffered loss of legs as a boy of nine in the wake of a tragic accident.

  而这句话按照一般思路则是:He suffered loss of legs when he was a boy of nine in the wake of a tragic accident.

  6) 当我还是单身的时候我总是坐飞机到处旅游。

  I used to travel a great deal by air as a bachelor.

  而这句话按照一般思路则是:I used to travel a great deal by air when I was unmarried.

    
  
  
  

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