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完形填空的解题秘诀

来源:101教育网整理 2016-08-18 字体大小: 分享到:

  完形填空在高考英语试题中是具有一定难度,得分率相对较低的一种题型。现总结归纳一些方法供考生参考。

  1. 通读全文,掌握大意,重视首句,启示全文

  考生首先要通读全文,了解文章的内容、中心思想及文章结构,从整体上感知全文,掌握文中时间、地点、人物及事件。对于个别不理解的词句,只要不影响理解就不要管它。

  完形填空 一般采取首句不设空的原则,其目的是使读者进入语境,以便对理解全文有重要的启示。因此考生要重视并细读首句,并据此来判断文章的体裁、题材,推测全文的主旨和大意,推断故事发生的人物、时间、地点、气氛等多方面的信息。如2004年全国卷I 这篇完形填空,看了首句It was the night before the composition was due. As I looked at the list of topics, The Art of Eating Spaghetti(意大利面条) caught my eye.后,我们可大体上推断,这篇文章与写作文 吃意大利面条 有关,这样对于我们理解全文起到了很关键的作用。

  2. 瞻前顾后,通篇考虑,紧扣文章,结合语法

  了解了文章的主旨大意后,我们就可以联系上下文,瞻前顾后,运用逻辑思维对选项进行分析、比较、判断,选出符合逻辑及情理的选项。选题时可尝试从以下几个方面考虑:

  (1)上下文语境角度考虑

  上下文语境包括选择项与所在句子中的语义联系,所在句与周围句群的关系,所在句在本段中所起的作用,所在句在整篇短文中所起的作用以及与文章主题思想的关系等。

  例 完形填空片断:(保留原题号,下同)

  Tracy Wong is a well-known Chinese American writer. But her writing 36 was something she picked up by herself. After her first 37 , teaching disabled children, she became a part-time writer for IBM. 38 , writing stories was simply a 39 interest.

  36. A. skill B. experience

  C. practice D. method

  【解析】答案A。本题考查词义及搭配能力。她的写作技巧是她自己练出来的。pick up a skill 是练成/学会的一种技能,从搭配上看合理。

  37. A. duty B. effort

  C. job D. task

  【解析】答案C。此题考查上下文语境的判断能力。空后的teaching disabled children 是前面内容的同位语,教残疾儿童是一种工作,且后文 part-time writer (业余作家),也说明她有一份工作。

  38. A. Instead B. Normally

  C. Certainly D. Then

  【解析】答案D。结合上下文根据词义,可知答案为D, Then 意为 在当时 。

  39. A. general B. deep

  C. personal D. lively

  【解析】答案C。全句意为:在当时,写作不过是她的一项个人兴趣(不是工作或谋生的手段)。

  (2)从词汇意义及用法的角度考虑

  例 (2004 浙江)完形填空片断

  It was all his own idea, says Pat, the wife of California high school football coach Bob Peters. Bob had 36 made a motherhood contract - declaring that for 70 days this summer he would 37 the care of their four children and all the housework. 38 he didn't even know how to make coffee when sighed, he was very confident.

  36. A. only B. just

  C. nearly D. ever

  【解析】答案B。本题考查副词词义的辨析能力。有上下文知,他还没有立即履行合同。

  37. A. stick to B. set about

  C. think about D. take over

  【解析】答案D。本题考查动词词义辨析能力。take over 意为 接管 。

  38. A. If B. As

  C. Since D. Although

  【解析】答案D。本题考查状语从句的引导词。句意:虽然他在签合同时连如何煮咖啡都不知,但他还是很自信。as作 尽管 讲时,从句部分必须是倒装语序。

  (3)逻辑推理、常识等角度考虑

  高考完形填空往往以自身的内容提供相对完整的语篇信息,其间交织渗透着各类相关的文化背景知识和常识,当对语言的把握不很准确时,可充分利用社会文化知识和生活常识来帮助判断。

  例 (2004 湖北)完形填空片断

  The couple called around to find a tire. No 43 .They decided to let her use their own car. Here, Paul said, handling Clay a 44 of keys.

  43. A. way B. message

  C. success D. luck

  【解析】答案D。no luck 为固定短语,意为: 运气不好 ,表示没有找到好的车胎。

  44. A. set B. number

  C. pair D. chain

  【解析】答案A。a set of意为 一副/套/串 ,a number of 意为 许多 ,a pair of意为 一双 ,chain意为 锁链,链条 。根据生活常识,应为a set of keys(一串钥匙)。

  3. 代入答案,复读全文,核对文意,纠正错误

  完成选择后,要再花一两分钟,把所选答案代入空格,复读全文,核对文意,验证词汇、语法是否符合句型结构;句子是否流畅,上下文逻辑关系是否一致,全文是否紧凑且浑然一体,同时把自己认为错误的答案改正过来。

  完形填空专练

  A Strange Greeting, a True Feeling Last week I was invited to a doctor s meeting at the Ruth hospital for incurables. In one of the wards a patient, an old man, got up shakily from his bed and moved towards me. I could see that he hadn't long to 1 , but he came up to me and placed his right foot close mine on the floor.

  Frank! I cried in astonishment. He couldn t 2 , as I knew, but all the time 3 his foot against mine.

  My 4 raced back more than thirty years to the 5 days of 1941, when I was a student in London. The 6 was an air-raid shelter, in which I and about hundred other people slept every night. Two of the regulars were Mrs. West and her son Frank.

    
  
  
  


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