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高考英语写作语言表达巧解(理)

来源:101教育网整理 2016-08-18 字体大小: 分享到:

  正确表达

  之所以说作文是综合水平的体现,是因为考生的知识水平,熟练程度,理解深度到底如何,只有作文能够检验出来。单词背得多的,文章读得多,在西方文化里浸泡的时间长的,写出来的文章会脱颖而出。

  虽然这方面的水平的提高是只能是长时间努力的结果,但是熟练掌握高考作文时常涉及的各类词汇,各类表达方式是事半功倍的。

  词汇及其使用

  以前面提到的2001年考题为例,许多学生因为词汇量的匮乏无法表达题目所要求的内容,而平时博览群书的考生就不会对文章所涉及的领域感到陌生。对一般考生来说,高考大纲上的词汇必须全部掌握。因为课内的单词如果能熟练的运用,就不会出现没米下锅的情况。

  词汇扩充

  我们在这里仅对有限的几个领域的词汇提供一些参考,都是需要学生能够灵活驾驭的词汇,此处由于篇幅考虑不做注释和用法讲解:

  学校

  Campus, facilities, theme,

  goal, preference, course, routine,

  passionate, enthusiastic, ambitious, confident, easygoing, boring

  participate, concentrate,

  focus, attract, distract,

  inspire, sit up all night,

  课外

  Interview, community service, part-time job, pocket money, spare time,

  tempting, popular, challenging, corrupted,

  Volunteer,

  waste time in,

  relax,

  get away from,

  社会现象

  policy, atmosphere, dialogue, beauty, civilization, culture, nutrition, housing

  privacy, standard

  Skin deep, superficial, stylish, fashionable, common, effective, determined,

  represent, lead,

  direct,

  have a positive

  /negative effect on, affect the lives of, spare no efforts to, turn sth. into reality, take much action to, take measures to,

  经济

  progress, growth, prosperity, luxury, biotechnology, income,

  increasing, Optimistic, pessimistic, financial, rapid

  decrease,

  boom, continue,

  come to a stop,

  get laid off,

  encourage flourish,

  环境

  coast,

  climate, atmosphere, species,

  Environmental, ecological, endangered,

  Pollute,

  protect,

  preserve,

  establish,

  城市

  subway, tunnels, skyscrapers, suspension bridges, theatres,

  Crowded,

  In harmony, private,

  Construct,

  rebuild, relocate,

  tear down,

  flood, blueprint,

  词汇用法

  作文是对考生对词汇用法掌握程度的最有效测试。

  很多考生死记硬背了学多单词,但是没有搞动每一个词的用法和搭配,实际上等于只能认读该词,并没有真正的学会。想写出好的作文要在此地用法上好好下一番功夫。

  以 Make, get的搭配和动词短语为例来示范一下一个单词应该掌握到什么程度:

  l Make “做,制造”

  一些搭配:

  make tea,砌茶

  make bed,铺床

  make suggestion, 提建议

  make faces做鬼脸

  动词短语:

  1. make it 成功,实现

  We were surprised that he made it at last.

  2. make sense 有道理

  Does your sentence make sense?

  3. make the most of 充分利用

  It is wise to make the most of the weekend.

  还有make friends with交朋友, make a fool of sb.开某人的玩笑, make room for sb.腾地方给某人, make way让路, make (full)use of 充分利用;等等

  注意,make up有五种常用意义,分别是:

  1组成,2化妆,3编造,4和解,5弥补。

  My family is made up of my parents and me. Mom, quite into her own look, makes up 5 times a day. When asked how she looks, Dad usually makes up some lies. But sometimes mom can tell and have fight with dad. Soon afterward they will make up, because dad always makes up for her by doing some chores.

  注意理解下面一篇小文:

  l Get “取得,成为”

  1. get (the message) across, 传达

  The teacher got his idea across to student by drawing a picture.

  2. get ahead of, 领先

  If you want to get ahead of others, work harder.

  3. get away from, 远离

  I wish I could get away from school.

  4. get away with, 被放过,不受惩罚

  You can never get away with cheating.

  5. get on with, 相处

  The twins get on well with each other.

  6. get by, 凑合,勉强维持

  The cats cannot get by without food in winter.

  7. get hold of, 抓住,得到

  I didn’t get hold of the question in the test.

  8. get into/out of the habit, 养成/改掉习惯,

  It takes nothing to get into a bad habit, but take a lot of things to get out of it.

  9. get over, 克服(情绪),从……恢复

  I haven’t never gotten over from the shock that I failed the mid-term exam.

  10. get rid of, 摆脱

  I just want to get rid of the bad moods.

  句型

  在深刻理解了英语作文的几种篇章结构以后,根据不同文章题材的需要,正确灵活的使用各种句型。那么就能在文章中写出闪光的句子,使行文自然流畅,条理清晰。

  前面说过的01年的考题要求我们使用第二(现象-影响-建议)论述结构,其中就有一些句型结构可以根据情况灵活使用。

  1. 现象描述句

  Recently, with the rapid development of industry ….

  In few recent years, there is a sudden increase in…

  A great change has taken places everywhere in the past few decades…

  2. 影响分析句

  There are a number of effect of…, the 1st…2nd….3…

  It may cause serious consequences

  It will give rise to a lot of problems

  3. 建议句

  It would be wise to… if we want to…

  How can we… without…

  The most effective way to solve these problems is…

  这些句型中的词汇可以根据题目要求的题材不同进行更替,要在服务于中心的前提下适当地使用它们。不能言过其实,或是与题目内容背道而驰。

  要做到这一点,需要考生良好的词汇功底和对这些句式的熟练掌握。

  连贯

  连贯是对每一位考生最需要学习的内容。汉语和英语作文的最大区别尽显于此。

  汉语作文中所需要逻辑符号远远少于英语作文,主要的原因是两种文化中的阅读和表达习惯不同。英语文章需要大量的连接词,用于表达句与句之间的逻辑关系,因而考生应对这些词汇有着深刻了解。

  每一个由主、谓、宾等成分组成的完整句和下一个完整句之间应该有着意义上的关系。要让文章连贯,只需突出这些“意义上的关系”。具体做法可以有:

  1. 补充逻辑功能词

  2. 关系代词联系法

  3. 从句联系法

  首先来讲讲逻辑功能词,是指联系一个意群和相邻的一个意群的短语或单词。

  这种方法是所有英语作文里必须的,也是最常见的。我们在这里不去赘述常见的连词和表达方式,对大家的逻辑功能词进行扩充,用法会在以后的课堂中进行讲解:

  逻辑功能词扩充

  次序

  first, second, third, first and foremost, last but not least.

  原因和理由

  consequently, therefore, hence, thus, as a result of,owing to this, on account of this.

  目的

  in order to, so as to, so that, for the purpose of

  补充

  not only… but also, furthermore, in addition, moreover, what’s more, besides, as well (as),

  强调和重申

  above all, in fact, in particular, particularly, most importantly, especially, that is to say, in other word

  对比和转折

  on one hand… on the other hand, in contrast with, whereas,on the contrary

  让步

  however, nevertheless, yet, despite this,

  总述和收尾

  all in all, in a word, in summary, in conclusion, to sum up,on the whole,

  其次是关系代词联系法。当我们在第一句提到一个事物的时候,下一句要继续围绕着这个事物的一个相关事物进行写作,而不宜另起炉灶写一个毫无关系事物。常用的词除了it, he, she, that, 还有描述方式和程度的 so, such 等等。比如 He usually has his dinner quite late. Such habit makes him fatter and fatter.

  最后是从句联系法。顾名思义从句联系法就是利用定语从句将描述性的几个句子结合到一个句子里,比如 The campus of our school is so beautiful that whoever visiting the city will come to our school for sightseeing.

    
  
  
  

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