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高考教师辅导:英语书面表达的测试与应试(理)

来源:101教育网整理 2016-08-18 字体大小: 分享到:

  写作是英语词汇,语法和语言运用各方面能力的真实反映。高考中的书面表达是一种有控制的写作(controlled writing),或称为有指导的作文(guided composition)。凡是平时不爱动笔的同学,应该立刻行动,每日或三句,或五句,赶紧写起来,否则悔之晚矣。

  《考试大纲》对书面表达作了如下规定:要求考生根据所给情景,用英语写一篇一百个单词左右的短文。情景包括目的、对象、时间、地点、内容等;提供情景的形式有图画、图表、提纲等。

  书面表达的质量要求:

  (1)要点全面、表达准确、语句连贯。

  (2)能用书写体熟练清楚地书写,格式、连笔、词距、标点正确。

  (3)书写格式、行文及礼貌用语等无严重错误。

  (4)基本语法和常用句型无严重错误,意思表达清楚。

  (5)鼓励使用复杂结构,新颖词汇和顺畅连接。所谓复杂结构包括定语从句、强调句型、倒装、被动、虚拟、非谓语短语、so…that、和with加复合宾语等。

  在写作文时应注意以下几点:

  (1)仔细审题,看清题目要求与注意事项。

  (2)确定文章类型,如是记叙文,一般用过去时,如是说明文,主要用现在时。

  (3)看全内容要点,主要内容缺一不可。

  (4)尽量写草稿,实在没时间也要写一个简略题纲。

  (5)用你见过的句型来写,不生造中国式的英文。

  (6)写好首句尾句,注意关联词语的使用。

  (7)记叙文注意who,what,where,when,which,why,how

  (8)议论文注意论点论据。

  (9)可适当使用复杂结构和新颖词汇,但应以准确传达意思为第一原则。

  (10)书写规范,卷面整洁也要重视。

  (11)一般十句话即可达到字数要求

  (12)写完后要以短文改错的精神复核全文,重点看动词的形式。

  练习与解析--练习举例

  2004年全国高考试题(卷1)

  书面表达(共25分)

  假设你是李华,你在报上看到北京电视台今年七月将举办外国人“学中文,唱中文歌”才艺大赛。你的美国朋友Peter正在北京一所大学学中文,你觉得他应去试一试。请按以下要点给他写信告知此事,并表示可以提供帮助。

  比赛时间:7 月18日

  报名时间:截止到6月30日

  报名地点:北京电视台

  注意:

  1.词数:100左右

  2.可适当增加细节,以使行文连贯

  3.参考词汇:才艺大赛-talent show

  Dear Peter,

  Yours, Li Hua

  One possible version:

  Dear Peter,

  I read in a newspaper today that a “Learn Chinese, Sing Chinese Songs” Foreigners’ Talent Show will be held in Beijing Television Station on July 18. I know you like singing, and you are in Beijing during that period. I think this is a good chance for you to show your singing talent, and how well you’ve learned Chinese. If you would like to try, you'll have to go to the TV station to sign up before the end of June. If there is anything I can do for you, I would be more than glad to help.

  评分原则:

  1、本题总分25分,其中内容和语言占24分,词数占1分。按7个档次给分。

  2、评分时,先根据文章的内容和语言初步确定其所属档次,然后以该档次的要求来衡量,确定或调整档次,最后给分。词数在90—110之间的,加1分。

  3、词数不够80和多于120的,从总分中减去2分。

  4、评分时,应注意的主要内容为:内容要点、应用词汇和语法结构的数量和准确性、上下文的连贯性及语言的得体性。

  5、拼写和标点符号是语言准确性的一方面,评分时,应视其对交际的影响程度予以考虑。英、美拼写及词汇用法均可接受。

  6、如书写较差,以至影响交际,将分数降低一个档次。

  7、语言首先要求准确通顺。

  8、鼓励写出新颖词汇,顺畅连接和复杂结构。复杂结构举例(定语从句、强调句型、倒装、被动、虚拟、非谓语短语、so…that、with加复合宾语及名词性从句)。

  本文内容经天利考试信息网授权,未经许可不得转载!

  自我训练

  (1)请根据下列内容提示写一封致歉信给你的朋友Alan。他住在Driffield。假设你名叫Tom,住在Pigston。词数100左右。

  apologize about last Thursday

  did not come to see you

  lost my wallet— found it

  too late for the train

  took the bus, but a wrong one

  went to Milford

  didn’t speak to you on the phone— tried, no answer

  fix some other time

  (2)根据以下内容用英语写一篇日记。

  今天是12月10日,星期一。你在上学途中,突然听到不远处传来呼救声。你跑过去,发现一个小男孩在水中挣扎。你放下书包,衣服来不及脱就跳进河里去救她。河水很冷,你冻得发抖,但仍然继续往前游,最后把他拉上岸。这时孩子的母亲赶到了,她非常感激你,问你叫什么名字,你笑了笑说:“我是共青团员”。

  (3)请同学们写一篇短文介绍港口城市青岛,内容要求如下:

  1、位于山东省东部。

  2、以蓝色的大海,美丽的海滨而闻名,是避暑胜地。

  3、每年夏天来自全国各地成千上万的人们到这里沿海漫步、游泳、购物、观赏秀丽景色。

  4、近年来城市发生巨大变化,对发展我国对外贸易起重要作用,成为国际港口城市。

  (4)写一篇词数约80—100的留言条。

  内容提示:

  1、假定你叫Mary,原与Alice约好星期日一起去北京动物园。

  2、不巧,你小妹妹生病了,你得带她去医院看病。

  3、北京动物园离Alice家较远,Alice家在西单。

  4、你建议Alice在西单乘15路公共汽车去动物园,15路直达动物园。

  5、因是星期天,有许多人乘车去,交通是会紧张的。

  6、祝Alice玩的愉快。

  要求:注意写字条的格式。

  (5)你校拟进行一次以“My Future”为主题的英语演讲会,假如你被推选去参加演讲,请你按提纲写出演讲稿:

  1、我决定当一名中学教师,当教师是我孩提时代的梦想。

  2、我认为,和孩子们打交道并不是浪费时间,而是很幸福的。

  3、我国教师缺乏,想当教师的人不多,主要原因是当教师工作辛苦,收入不高。尽管这样,我还是决心献身于教育事业。

  (6)以《The Value of Time》为题目写一篇短文。

  提示:

  1、时间比金钱更重要、宝贵,要珍惜时间。

  2、时间对每个人来说是有限的,应充分利用大好时光为国家效力。

  3、指出有些人没有认识时间的价值。

  4、养成良好的节约时间的好习惯,今日事今日毕。

  (7)根据提示写一封感谢信。

  假定你叫李伟,是北京二中高一学生。前些天你叔叔来信祝贺你的生日,并寄给你一本英汉词典作为生日礼物,为此你给他写一封信表示感谢,并告诉他最近你在市英语口语竞赛中获一等奖。写信日期为2000年6月8日。

  本文内容经天利考试信息网授权,未经许可不得转载!

  参考答案

  (1)

  Dear Alan,

  I’m writing to apologize about last Thursday. I am terribly sorry that I didn’t go to see you, for I lost my wallet. Anyway, I found it. But it was too late for the train. I had to take the bus. What a pity that I took a wrong one. It went to Milford. There, I waited for half an hour for a bus to Driffield. It was much worse that on the way to your home, the bus broke down. So I just went back home to Pigston. I really do apologize because I didn’t speak to you on the phone, but it wasn’t my fault. I tried several times, but there was no answer.

  Anyway, how about next Thursday?

  Love,

  Tom

  (2)

  Dec. 10, Monday, Fine

  This morning I was on my way to school when I heard someone not far away crying for help. I ran over to see what had happened. Finding a boy struggling in the river, I put down my schoolbag and jumped into the river to save him without taking off my clothes. The water was so cold that I kept trembling. But I encouraged myself to swim forward. At last, I pulled him to the bank. Just then the boy’s mother came and said, “Without you, my son might have drown. I ‘m so thankful to you. May I have your name, please?” I just smiled, saying, “I’m a League Member.”

  (3)

  The city of Qingdao is in the east of Shangdong Rrovince. It is famous for the blue sea and beautiful beaches. It is a wonderful place for summer holidays. Tens of thousands of people from all parts of the country visit Qingdao every summer. They walk along the beach, go swimming or do some shopping. They can see fine view of the city.

  Great changes have taken place in Qingdao in the recent years. It has played an important part in the development of the foreign trade of our country. It has become an international port city.

  (4)

  Alice,

  I’m very sorry to tell you that I can’t go with you to the Beijing Zoo this afternoon because my little sister is seriously ill and I have to take her to hospital.

  The Beijing Zoo is far away from your home. You can go there by bus. As you live near Xidan, you can take Bus No. 15 at Xidan. That’ll take you straight to the Beijing Zoo. Today is Sunday. There are a lot of people going by bus. The traffic is very heavy.

  I hope you have a wonderful time

  Mary

  (5)

  My fellow classmates:

  Every one of us is thinking about the future. What is mine? I have decided to become a middle school teacher. Does it sound surprising?

  I had this dream when I was only a child. I love children. I don’t think to deal with them all year round is just wasting time. On the contrary it would mean happiness to me. As we all can see, teachers are badly needed in our country, but not many of us want to become teachers. One of the main reasons for this is that teachers work too hard but get too little. In spite of that, I’m determined to devote all my life to the cause of education.

  (6)

  The Value of Time

  A proverb says “Time is money.” But in my opinion, time is even more precious than money. Why? Because when money is spent, we can earn it back. However, when time is gone, it will never return. This is the reason why we must value time.

  The time we can use is limited. Therefore, even an hour is extremely precious. We should make full use of our time to do useful things. As students we must not relax our efforts to learn our lessons so as to serve society and our nation in the future.

  But it is pity that there were a lot of people who do not know the importance of time. They spend their precious time smoking, drinking and chatting. They do not realize that wasting time is equal to wasting a part of their valuable life.

  In a word, we should form the good babit of saving time. Do not put off what can be done today until tomorrow.

  (7)

  No. 2 Middle School

  Beijing

  June 8th, 2000

  Dear Uncle,

  It was very kind of you to remember my birthday, and I thank you very much for the English-Chinese dictionary and for your good wishes. I have already begun to use the dictionary, and I love it.

  I am glad to tell you that I won the first prize in spoken English contest held in our city recently. I am sure you will be glad to hear that, and I’ll do my best to work harder and make more progress.

    
  
  
  

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