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高考英语试题常见易混易错句型归纳解析(理)

来源:101教育网整理 2016-08-19 字体大小: 分享到:

  在长期的英语教学和备考过程中,笔者发现学生们对英语的一些特定句型掌握不住,在口头交际和书面表达时,频繁出现错误,为便于理解,掌握和运用,特归纳解析:

  ㈠常见的语义重复现象,.不能与括号内的词并用。

  Because------(so) though/Although----(but) repeat -----(the same ,again) repay----(back)

  Return------(back) unite------(together) combine-----(together) master----(well)

  Hate--(very much) advance---(forword) improve----(better) sink—(down)

  Renew---(again) about/around—(or so) walk-----(on foot) alone---(by oneself)

  Still----(remain) meet---(together) No---(not any/not a) think over--(carefully)

  (very)---perfect (very)----excellent (very)--- tiny (very)---huge

  Can----(be able to) Be about to do…..(at once /immediately) both…..(as wellas, equal , equally, together)

  :Enter——(into)

  难点解析 :如果enter和into连用

  ①表示to allow oneself to share inor become part of 分享,投身于,成为….的一部分

  He entered in to the spirit of the game with great excitement他兴致勃勃,融入比赛的气氛中

  ②表示to begin to take part in formally (正式 )开始参加

  Before you enter into an agreement ,you should read the contract carefully

  在签署协议之前,你应该仔细阅读合同

  ㈡ 触及身体某一部位的表达方式

  在汉语中,把被触及身体某一部位作为动词的宾语,如:打他的脸;拍她的头。

  在英语中,则把接受动作的人作为宾语,用介词短语来说明接触到的身体某一部位,即用下面的句式

  主语﹢谓语﹢somebody﹢ 介词﹢the身体部位

  约翰打了他的脸。

   : John hit his face . 正: John hit him in the face

  解析 :在这一句型中常用的 动词有:hit , pat , beat , touch , strike 等等。

  关于介词的选用问题:

  一般身体部位比较硬而突出的地方或强调接触人体的表面,用介词on;如on the head(back ,nose ,shoulder, chest, ……)

  一般在软而凹的部位用介词 in 如:in the face(eye ,stomach , rib…..)

  一般表示抓,拉,握,牵等.常见动词:catch , seize ,grab ,pull ,take, hold ,. 身体的某一部位时,用介词by.

  选择填空: 1 The boss_____him _____back and told him something secret Key (D)

  A patted….by the B patted …on his C patted…in the D patted …on the

  2 Mary led a granny_____hand to across the street Key(D)

  A in..the B on the C by her D by the

  3 He felt someone ____ him on ____shoulder when he was watching the game. KEY ( C)

  A patted…his B pat..his C patting…the D patted….his

  ㈢ 辨别since从句肯定与否定的三条规律

  ① 非延续性动词的一般过去时充当since从句的谓语时,从句的内容和形式是统一的,从句的意义是“自从….以来”.。非延续性动词又叫终止性动词/结束性动词。如 come ,leave ,give ,die ,arrive ,return ,find 等。

  1 We have lived in Shanghai since we parted 自从分手以来,我们一直住在上海。

  2 I have not been to Beijing since I came to study here in 2002 自从2002年来此学习后,握就没去过北京。

  ② 延续性动词的一般过去时充当since从句的谓语时,从句的内容和形式是对立的,从句的意义是“自从不….以来,或自从….结束以来.”.。延续性动词所表示的动作和状态可以一直持续下去。如: work ,study ,live ,teach等。

  1 Things have become even more difficult since I had the bike

  [误] 自从我有了那辆自行车以后,情况就更糟糕了。

  [正] 自从我丢了那辆自行车以后,情况就更糟糕了。

  2 We have not heard from Mike since he worked there 。

  [误] 自从迈克在那里工作,我们再也没有收到他的来信。

  [正] 自从迈克不在那里工作以后,我们再也没有收到他的来信

  3 It is a week since he was in hospital .

  [误]他住院有一个星期了.

  [正] 他出院有一个星期了

  ③特殊情况

  在下面情况下,虽然since从句的谓语仍由延续性动词充当,但从句的形式与内容上却是统一的.。

  1 延续性动词的现在完成时充当since从句的谓语.。

  She has made much progress since she has been a teacher .

  当了老师以后,她的进步很大

  2 since与ever连用时,延续性动词的一般过去时充当从句的谓语。

  She has given me a lot of help ever since she worked in our factory

  她来我们厂工作后,给我很多帮助。

  ㈣ 否定转移现象

  ① 当表示主观看法和心理活动的动词,如think ,suppose ,believe ,imagine ,expect ,fancy等后跟宾语从句时,其从句的否定要转移到主句。

  I don’ t think it will be very cold today 我认为今天不会太冷

  I don’t suppose that anyone will object to the plan 我想没有人反对这个计划

  由例句可看出:这类句型重点在宾语从句,所以其反意疑问句的主语应是宾语从句的主语,谓语动词应采用宾语从句的谓语.。

  I don’t believe she knows it ,does she ?

  ② 当半助动词happen,seem作谓语时,可将否定谓语转移到否定句子的其他成分。

  I didn’t happen to have any money on me ﹦I happened not to have any money on me

  ﹦ It so happened that I didn’t have any money on me 我碰巧身边没有带钱.

  此类动词还有feel ,look ,taste ,smell,appear ,sound 等。

  The blackboard doesn’t feel smooth﹦the blackboard feels not smooth 这块黑板摸起来并不光滑

  ③以because引导的原因状语从句或because of 引导的原因状语

  The mountain is not valuable because it is high

  [误] 因为这座山高,而没有价值.。

  [正] 山的价值并不在于它的高度。

  注意: 上面句子,主句和从句之间没有用逗号隔开;若用逗号隔开,意思就发生了变化。

  请比较:She didn’t ask the teacher some questions because she was afraid of him.

  ﹦She asked the teacher some questions,not because she was afraid of him.

  她并不是因为怕老师才去问他问题。

  She didn’t ask the teacher some questions, because she was afraid of him

  她没有问老师问题,因为她怕他。

  ㈤ 强调句 It is/was …….that/who易混易错点

  A 易错点:

  ①原句的人称,时态和数在变为强调句时不要变动.

  I gave Mary a book the day before yesterday.→It was Mary who/that I gave a book to the day before yesterday

  ②如果原句是一般疑问句,强调结构用“Is/Was it ……that”形式.。

  Did your brother join in the army in 2001?→Was it your brother that/who joined the army in 2001?

  ③ 如果原句为特殊疑问句,强调结构用“特殊疑问词﹢is/was it …..that”形式。

  Where did you meet him the other day ?→Where was it that you met him the other day?

  ④ 如果原句含有not until,在转换为强调结构时,必须把not连同until引导的 成分放在be 之后。

  I didn’t receive your letter until yesterday→It was not until yesterday that I received your letter.

  类似情况还有:

  We can’t expect to succeed without an effort →It is not without an effort that we can expect to succeed

  Money can’t buy everything →It is not everything that Money can buy.

  ⑤这一句型可强调原因状语从句,当原因状语从句是as ,since,引导时应改为because引导.

  She missed the first bus since she got up late→It was because she got up late that she missed the first bus

  B 易混点:

  ① 强调句型与主语从句的区别:

  如果将It is /was ….that 去掉后句意清楚,句法正确,为强调句型:由it作为形式主语的主语从句,可以将that 从句置于句首,其句意不变.。

  1)It is possible that we will survive the fire →that we will survive the fire is possible(主语从句)

  2)It is a fact that men must die→that men must die is a fact(主语从句)

  3)It is reported that progress has been made in the cure of cancer→that progress has been made in the cure of cancer is reported(主语从句)

  ②强调句型It is/was….that与引导时间状语从句和定语从句的It is / was …..when之间的区别

  在强调句型中that 前,被强调的是状语而when前面是表示时间点的名词,用来作表语.。

  1) It was at eight o’clock in the morning that they went to work (强调句)

  2) It was eight o’clock in the morning when they went to work (时间状语从句)

  3) It was July 15,2003 when I graduated from Beijing University (when 关系副词,引导定语从句,用作状语)

  高考试题演练:1)Why!I have nothing to confess._____you want me to say?(2004上海,43)

  A What is it that B What is it that C How is it that D how it is that

  解析: 此题考查强调句中强调疑问词时语序的排列,这是一个特殊疑问句,say后面缺少宾语所以用what ,故选A

  2)I have always been honest and straight forward,and it doesn’t matter____Iam making to (2004广东23)

  A who is it B who it is C it is who D it is whom

  解析: 此题考查强调句中强调疑问词时语序的排列,这是一个特殊疑问句,考查被强调部分充当宾语的结构。其语序应遵循宾语从句的语序,,即陈述语序。另外,在此处是做to的宾语,应用宾格whom,但在通常情况下,也可以用who代替whom ,故选B

  ㈥如何解决 短暂性动词与段时间状语连用的问题

  英语中的短暂性动词,又叫终止性动词,瞬间动词或非延续性动词。

  易混点:在现在完成时否定句中可以和段时间状语连用.。如:I have not borrowed the novel for two weeks .

  易错点:在肯定句中不能与段时间状语连用(如 for…,since…,或how long….?),为了避免错误,在使用这类词时应学会并掌握“三个变化”。

  1终止性动词可以转换为延续性动词,主要有以下四类:

  ①用相应的延续性动词: buy →have borrow →keep put →wear catch a cold → have a cold

  come/go →be

  ② 转换为be﹢名词: join the army/league/Party →be a soldier/League member/Party member

  Go to school →be a student; become a teacher→ be a teacher

  ③转换为be﹢形容词或副词: die →be dead , finish →be over , begin →be on , fall asleep→be asleep , leave→be away(from),wake→be awake ,get up→be up ,close →be closed , open →be open

  Fall/get ill/sick →be ill/sick, marry →be married

  ④转换为be﹢ 介词短语: go to/come to地点→be in /at 地点, join the army →be in the army

  Move to 地点→be in /at 地点

  2 时间状语改变:即for﹢数词﹢…时间名词﹢…ago

  【误】He has joined the army for three years

  【正】He has been in the army for three years.

  【正】He joined the army three years ago.

  3 句子模式的变化 :用It is﹢ 时间﹢since…﹢

  It is three years since he joined the army .


    
  
  
  

 

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