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高考英语试卷中“what”的特殊用法分析

来源:101教育网整理 2016-08-18 字体大小: 分享到:

  what在英语中是个很常用的词。我们知道它能用作疑问词,引导特殊疑问句,在句中做主语﹑表语或宾语;又能用作连接代词(或复合关系代词),引导主语从句﹑表语从句或宾语从句;还能用作疑问形容词,只作定语并可表示感叹。对于这些常规的用法本文就不一一赘述,现就what在高中英语中的某些特殊用法归纳如下:

  1. what = just as,意为“恰像,犹如,好比”用作连词,引导比较状语从句。

  ⑴ 惯用句式是:A is to B what C is to D. 意为“A对B而言正如C对D一样”例如:

  ① Air is to us what water is to fish. 空气对于我们犹如水对于鱼。(介词to 表示两者的关系)

  ⑵ 也有“A is for B what C is for D.”句式。例如:

  ② Poultry is for the cook what canvas is for the paint. 厨师离不了家禽正如画家离不开画布一样。(介词for表示“供…使用”)

  ⑶ what 引导的从句也可以放在句首,其句式是:What C is to D,that A is to B.(= A is to B what C is to D.)

  在这一结构中,喻体在前,主体在后,相当于“just as…,so…”结构,意思也是“A对B而言正如C对D一样”例如:

  What blood vessel is to a man's body,that railway is to transportation.(=Just as blood vessel is to a man's body ,so Railway is to transportation.)

  铁路对于运输,好比血管对于人体一样。

  2. what 与do with连用,意为“(怎样)处理﹑安排或对付等”。what常有较灵活的翻译,常用结构是:“what …do with sth./sb.?”或“what to do with sth./sb.” 例如:

  ① What will you do with the letter? 你将把那封信怎样处理?

  ② The kids do not know what to do with themselves on rainy days.

  孩子们不知道雨天干什么好。

  注意:do with 与deal with同义,但搭配不同:do with只能与what搭配,而deal with可与不同的疑问词搭配。比较:

  ③ How will you deal with the letter?你将那封信怎样处理?

  ④ You may have some idea of what the astronauts have to deal with if you try to drink a glass of water while standing on your head or while just lying down.

  如果你试着倒立着或仅以躺着的姿势去喝水,就能大致体会得到宇航员必须应付什么了。

  3. 问价格﹑度量﹑速度、人口﹑面积﹑门牌(汽车﹑电话等)号码等时,只能用what提问,不能用how much提问。例如:

  ① What is the cost(price)of the gold watch?这块金表多少钱?

  ② What is the speed of the car?车速是多少?

  ③ What is the length(width﹑depth)of the lake?这湖有多长(宽、深)?

  ④ What is the population(area)of China?中国的人口(面积)有多少(大)?

  ⑤ What money(cash) have you got? 你有多少钱(现金)?

  ⑥ What is your telephone (car、room)number?

  你的电话(汽车﹑房间)号码是多少?

  4.“What is …like?”的两种含义。

  ⑴ 表示“情况怎样”,多指天气或气候。例如:

  ① What is the weather like today?今天天气怎样?

  ② What is the climate like there?那里的气候怎样?

  ⑵ 表示“像什么样,什么模样,怎样的” 指人或事物。例如:

  ③ What is the camel like ?骆驼是什么样子的?

  ④ — What is your teacher like?— She is very kind and beautiful.

  “你老师是怎样一个人?”——“她既善良又美丽。”

  ⑤ What will life be like in the future ? 未来的生活是什么样子呢?

  注意:“What is…like?”通常用于对某人、某地和某物的实际情况提问,包括对其内在的品质或外在的特征(或持久的特征)提问。而“How is … like?”是就某人、某地和某物的外观询问对方的看法,可以用来询问变化的事物,如暂时的情况,情绪等,还常用来问候别人的健康。如:

  ⑥ How is your work these days?? 近来你的工作情况如何?

  ⑦ How is he? 他近况如何?? (他身体近来怎么样?)

  比较:What does she look like?她是什么模样?(What… look like?只能指外表 )

  5.“What do you think of…?”用于询问对方对……的看法或评价。例如:

  ① What do you think of the idea?你认为这个主意怎样?

  ② What did you think of that film?你对那场电影评价如何?

  注意:“ What do you think of…?”是惯用搭配,不能改为“How do you think of…?”。但我们可以说:How do you feel about the idea(that film)?或者How do you like the idea(that film)?

  6.what 用作复合关系代词时,既可指代人又可指代物。例如:

  ① China is no longer what it used to be? 中国已不是过去的中国。

  ② She is what you call a “bluestocking”。 她就是你说的“女才子”。

  ③ She is not what she was five years ago. 她不再是5年前的她了。

  7. what从句可用作宾语补足语或状语。例如:

  ① We will make the factory twice what it is today. 我们将使工厂比现在规模增加一倍。(句中的twice what it is today是动词make的宾语the factory的补足语)

  ② Gravity is what makes you weigh what you weigh. 地心吸引力使人称得现有的重量(句中的第一个what到句末为表语从句;句末的what you weigh 是说明前面的动词weigh,系回答how much 的问题,作状语)

  8.像how和why一样,what可以用作名词。例如:

  ①? Please explain to us how and why,since you know what. 既然你想出一个好办法,请给我们解释清楚解决这个问题的方法和理由。

  ②? By asking why,how and what if,curious minds find new ideas and solutions.

  通过刨根问底,提出假设,富有求知欲的天才人物想出了新主意,找出了解决问题的新办法。

  9.与what连用的常用句型和词组

  ⑴ What if…?What will or would happen if…?如果(假如)…将会怎么样?例如:

  ① What if it is true?如果这是真的又怎么样?

  ② What if a storm should come up?万一发生暴风雨怎么办?

  ⑵ what with:because of ;as a result of;因为;由于……的结果;例如:

  ③ What with overwork and (what with)so little sleep,she fell ill.

  一半由于工作过度的劳累,一半由于睡眠不足,她病倒了。

  ④ She has been depressed,what with losing her job and having to move.

  她由于丢了工作还要搬家而感到沮丧。

  ⑶ and what not :and so on ;etc;以及各种其它东西;诸如此类;等等;例如:

  ⑤ I bought sugar,tea,eggs,and what not. 我买了食糖、茶叶、鸡蛋之类的东西。

  ⑷ come what will(may)是固定搭配必须倒装,意为“不管发生什么事”“不管怎样”

  ⑥ Come what will (may),I will always stand by you.

  不管发生什么事,我将永远支持你。

    
  
  
  

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