1元体验课

高一

101教育热线电话
400-6869-101
微信
当前位置: 首页 > 高一> 高一英语> 高一英语学习方法

10年高考英语指导:运用上下文和构词法猜词

来源:101教育网整理 2016-08-18 字体大小: 分享到:

  一、猜熟词生义

  例一 Dear all,

  Please read Professor Hume's email about his next lecture on Rosa Parks.

  Susan Miller

  Secretary

  Dear Susan,

  Please forward this message to students of my history class.

  What does the underlined word “forward” mean?

  A. Explain. B. Send.C. Take. D. Read.

  答案B。forward做副词,表示“向前方”、“前进”,这是同学们非常熟悉的。但在这里forward显然是用做动词,这是从构词法“转化词”的角度考查同学们词的知识扩展能力。forward在这里指信件的“转递”。

  例二One of the best-known sayings must be “Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise.” The promises of health, wealth, and wisdom to those who join the teams of the early retirers and risers must be particularly pleasing to many people in our modern society. There is no doubt that one of the greatest concerns of modern man is his health.

  The underlined word “retirers” in the paragraph here refers to _________.

  A.people who give up their work

  B.people who have a lot of free time

  C.people who go to bed

  D.people who live in quiet places

  答案C。我们所熟知的retire一词当“退休”讲,因此retirer似乎应当是A选项“people who give up their work”;但在本文的语境中riser对应early to rise,因此retirer要对应early to bed,取选项C的意义,这是熟词的生义。

  二、猜词的有效方法是上下文和构词法

  1.根据上下文猜词,就是要捕捉出猜词的语境信息。

  “上下文”是生词在语句、语段或语篇中的具体语言环境。一个生词总是与周围的词语发生某种联系,并受其制约。词的意思可以从“上下文”的语境中捕捉出来。在高考(Q吧)命题中,命题者往往会选择上下文比较充分的词,让同学们来猜。一般而言,命题者是不会把猜词变成“认字”意义上的考查的。换句话说,只要同学们有耐心,“上下求索”,总能够找到猜词信息的。问题是,由于平时很多同学依赖“电子字典”,逢生词便查,没有注意平时的猜词训练,没有形成猜词的意识、方法和技巧,因此,一到上下文猜词,就感到无所适从。

  在寻找上下文信息时,要特别注意语句、语段或语篇中所存在的解释、说明或者同义、反义、对比、归纳、列举等逻辑上的联系。

  例一 When Andrea Peterson landed her first teaching job, she faced the daunting task of creating a music program with almost no money for equipment or supplies in a climate where standards-based learning was the focus and music just provided a break for students and teachers.

  The underlined word “daunting” in the paragraph most probably means__________.

  A.discouraging

  B.interesting

  C.creative

  D.unbearable

  答案A。daunting的词义来自of后的描述性语言,如with almost no money(几乎没有钱),music just provided a break for students and teachers(对老师和学生来说音乐只不过是一段休息),从“没钱”和“不受重视”可以猜出词义为discouraging,“让人沮丧、丧失斗志和打消念头的”。

  例二 The above are the main reasons for this problem, and therefore we have to encourage young people to be more active, as well as steering them away from fast food shops and bad eating habits.

  The word "steering" underlined in the last sentence most probably means _______.

  A. forcing

  B. guiding

  C. driving

  D. moving

  答案B。猜测steering一词,要抓住as well as这个词所提示的并列、同义信息。前面是encourage young people to be more active,“鼓励年轻人更积极主动”,后面就应当是“引导”他们远离快餐店和不良饮食习惯,而不是forcing(迫使)、driving(驱使)他们来做这个事。

    
  
  
  

上一篇:10高考指南:从细节处把握高考

下一篇:上海英语高考:完型填空和阅读理解解题技巧

高一期末考前辅导
标签: (责任编辑:101教育小编)

相关文章推荐

精品课程推荐

更多精品课程
高一物理
匀变速直线运动的v-t图像典型例题
主讲:101远程教育网 免费试听
高一英语
改错小练兵
主讲:101远程教育网 免费试听
高一化学
离子方程式的正误判断易错题型
主讲:101远程教育网 免费试听

免费领取体验课

姓名
手机号
年级
*图形验证码
获取验证码
免费预约
高中双十一培优