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高考英语:讲究阅读策略识破庐山真面目

来源:101教育网整理 2016-08-18 字体大小: 分享到:

  阅读能力始终是高三学生的首要和重要任务,在具体的学习过程中,大家学习和掌握了大量的语法和句法知识,这是非常重要和必要的基础,但是仍有许多同学虽然掌握了相当的词汇和语法知识,却仍然对阅读原文文章感到力不从心,常表现为:认识词语,懂得句法结构,却不理解其意,更不要提更深层次的内涵和外延。阅读行为本身并不等同于阅读能力的培养。英语阅读行为的多少并不完全等同于阅读能力的强或弱。阅读与理解,知识与能力并不完全相等。

  障碍阅读效率的因素之一是阅读心理障碍和阅读观念的错误。由于习惯了基础阶段字、词、句、译的初学模式,学生们自然形成了一种比较固定的阅读模式,即:词语—句字—语法—翻译—(答案),结果不仅阅读速度慢,而且不能把握文章的主要脉络,更可怕的是忽略了整体理解,缺乏宏观的英语阅读能力。

  阅读习惯和速度

  由于“求精”“求细”“求知识”的阅读模式影响,不少学生养成了一些不良阅读习惯,这些不良阅读习惯反过来制约了阅读效率。这些不良习惯有:

  1.阅读视幅(eye span)小

  阅读视幅指眼睛每停留一次所能清晰地感知文字的广度,视幅对阅读的影响表现在两个方面:一是每看一眼能看清字数的多少;二是眼睛定置的次数与时间的关系,好的读者不会把单词作为注视点逐字阅读而是以意群为阅读注视点,要想提高阅读效率,需要克服小视幅的障碍,要在平时的阅读中有意识地训练自己。

  2.声读或心读

  声读是指在阅读时喃喃自语地把每个单词念出声来,有时也可能是无声地动动嘴唇,也有人称其为唇读。另一种较难察觉的声读形式是心读,即在内心想象着或默吟着每个单词的发音,往往用手指着读。这种声读或心读很可能是早期英语学习时以发音阅读为中心的学习方法和精读中养成的阅读习惯所导致的结果。这样做不仅有碍阅读速度,而且会过分依赖语言而易忽略语意,从而影响阅读的广度和深度。

  3.回读

  回读就是再次返回来重新阅读,又称为倒读或复读,这是由于读者对已读过的内容、句子、词等感觉不放心所导致的。回读虽不能完全避免,但次数过多,肯定会对阅读效率产生影响。另外回读的习惯也是由于过分重视微观语言现象所致,习惯回读的同学习惯于有对应的汉语翻译,否则会有不安全的感觉,导致对所读的内容缺乏自信心。我们应该明白对一篇文章的理解是整体的,有时是大致的,相对的,则可以避免过细过微的阅读习惯,克服不良阅读习惯。

  4.不了解西方写作结构的特点

  一般西方写作结构的特点是:

  1. Topic sentence ( subject, controlling idea ) 主题句

  2. Supporting sentence (A) 支持主题句的事例或细节

  3. Supporting sentence (B) 支持主题句的事例或细节

  4. Supporting sentence (C) 支持主题句的事例或细节

  5. Concluding sentence 结论

  请阅读下面的例文:

  Everywhere, you will always find “the white-haired boy”, sometimes called “the fair-haired boy”. He gets special treatment, as if he were above everyone else. You will find him in school, in college, at home, or where you work.

  In school, he is the teacher’s darling who can do nothing wrong. Sometimes she lets him do little jobs for her. He comes to class in the morning, all shiny and clean. He is always raising his hand, ready with an answer to the teacher’s questions. And he knows all the answers. He gets in you hair, especially if you are at the bottom of the class and the teacher you are stupid. How you hate him!

  At college, he walks——more often stride——across the school grounds as if he owned them. Sometimes he wears a colorful football or basketball shirt or sweater, with a bright red, or green or yellow college letter proudly worn on the front of it. What broad shoulders and what muscles he has! He makes the girls happy by just smiling at them. He has the mark of success on him.

  At home, “the fair-haired boy” is mother’s choice, her favorite. Sometimes, he is the oldest son——at times, the youngest. If you are in between, you are out of luck.

  Then, you discover that there are others who share your feeling, and are ready to “let their hair down”——to tell you their private thoughts. One of them asks, “Why does he have all that I haven’t got?” You ask yourself the same question.

  Finally, there comes a day when you decide to stop hating him. Is it perhaps became he has been made the boss and you find yourself working for him?

  1、From the passage we can know “the white-haired boy” is _______________.

  A、a boy whose hair is white B、a pet that does nothing wrong

  C、a child who is his mother’s favorite child

  D、a person who is lucky all the time

  2、“He gets in your hair” (in Paragraph 2) means “ ”

  A、he plays tricks on you

  B、he does up your hair

  C、he makes you a little angry

  D、he cuts your hair too short

  3、Which of the following is TRUE according to the passage?

  A、The middle son is considered the unluckiest at home.

  B、The top student at college is the white-haired boy.

  C、Wearing colorful clothes can make you attractive.

  D、The teacher in school treats her students unfairly.

  4、In the author’s opinion, you finally stop hating the “white-haired boy” because __________。

  A、you have no choice but to face the fact

  B、you decide to try your best to be better than him

  C、you have been made the boss by him

  D、you are beginning to admire him

  同学们在阅读本文时要利用一些阅读的技巧,如:

  1) 确认,分辨

  确认就是要将有关的词句、指称看准确,切勿张冠李戴,要行意结合,通过句式结构和语言意义正确把握语篇内容,同时对一句话或一个段落要进行分辨,看讲的是一个意思还是几个意思,是属于一个层面还是属于几个层面,并具有深层的含义,切勿囫囵吞枣。本文理解的关键就是第一题的the fair-haired boy.

  2) 预期,印证

  在阅读中对上下文应有预期的能力,根据语篇的信息线索,主动地预期下文情节的发展,作者思路的走向。要把握好这种thread of thought(思维主线),还可以借助段落、纲领或主题句以及一些具体信息。还可以通过语篇的承接语,如however, yet, though等,以及句子功能的标识语(indicator)等,还可以根据自己的前经验、知识及上下文对当时所读的书面信息或预期作出印证。

  3) 联系,推断

  由于每一个语篇都是有主题的,而且是有序关联的。因此在阅读时一定要注意前后联系,上下关系,同时也要做到表里联系———通过表层语言推断出深层含义,内外联系———借助外围背景知识推断理解书面信息。这种宏观阅读能提高读者的联想能力和理解能力。

  4) 语域,语境

  每一个语篇都是有语域的,也就是说语篇所表达的环境定位、人物之间的关系、语篇的性质等。语境指语篇中的各种语言环境因素,其中包括上下文、言语语气、暗示等内容。了解语域和语境对于准确理解语篇起着非常关键的作用。因此,要学会利用语域和语境。而且是善于运用于阅读之中,如例文的第2题,注意语境especially if you are at the bottom of the class and the teacher you are stupid. How you hate him!

  5) 归纳,总结

  以上阅读理解的基本要素不是互为孤立的,而是有机结合、互相渗透的。学生在平时的阅读中要有意识地进行自我训练,利用综合信息,善于得出结论,例文的话题是比较容易归纳和总结的,即:the white-hair boy is always lucky and fortunate, 如例文的第4题。

    
  
  
  

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