高一期末考试1v1

高一

101教育热线电话
400-6869-101
微信
当前位置: 首页 > 高一> 高一英语> 高一英语学习方法

高考指南:英语阅读理解题型破解 (理)

来源:101教育网整理 2016-08-18 字体大小: 分享到:

  高考考生中盛传“得阅读者得天下”一语,究其根源,并非无稽之谈。高考英语中阅读占40分,居各题型之首。高三学生英语成绩提高有两个槛:90分和120分。学生们要想从不及格跃上90分,或是要想从100多分超越120分,都只能在阅读上有所突破。纵观各地高考英语阅读中,考生出现的错误大多集中在文章能轻松读懂而题目偏难的陷阱题中。所以要想提高阅读理解得分,不仅需要提高自身英语基础,还要掌握高考试题出题思路、出题规律以及各类型题的解题技巧。

  一般来说,常见的高考阅读题型有:细节题、词汇题、主旨题、推理题、结构题。

  一、细节题

  细节,一般是对某一具体的人或事的详细描述或说明。而细节题则是针对细节提问,考查学生的跳读能力、对文章相关内容的理解并进行综合判断及推理分析的能力。细节题在高考阅读中比重最高,也是学生犯错频率最高的题型。解细节题时,运用三步定位法能一定程度上提高正确率。所谓“三步定位法”是指解题时,我们先通过题干信息来选择定位词,一般多通过题干中的名词、动词、数词来进行。选好定位词后,返回原文,查找这个词是在文中哪句话中出现的。题目的答案一般就包含在这句话中。

  例如:2006年高考英语全国卷2阅读理解B篇(见本期赠卷)

  47. In which year did the former first lady Jacqueline die?

  A. 1934 B. 1960 C. 1964 D. 1994

  【分析】本题根据题干中的专有名词Jacqueline,马上将信息定位到了文章第4段。继续读这段,会发现May 19. 1994这天发生的重大事情正是Jacqueline died,很显然答案为1994,选D。(这篇阅读理解的其他几个题目基本都是细节题,建议大家不妨用定位法练习一下)

  二、词汇题

  在阅读中遇到的词汇都可分为“生词”和“熟词”。在高考英语阅读中,“生词”,也就是常说的“超纲词汇”,一般文章会通过下定义、类比、举例等方式对其进行解释,答案就在在“生词”附近的句子中。 “熟词”主要是大纲要求的词汇,值得强调的是代词,指带上文提及的特定内容。对于“熟词”类词汇题,可以根据文章上下文内容确定,而且答案一般也在该词附近。

  例如:2001年高考英语全国卷阅读理解A篇

  Shanghai: Car rentals(出租)are becoming more and more popular as an inexpensive way of taking to roads. Business people, foreign and families alike are making good use of the growing industry.

  The first car rental firm opened in Shanghai in 1992 and now 12 car rental players are in the game, with more than 11,500 cars in their books.

  The largest player-Shanghai Bashi Tourism Car Rental Center offers a wide variety of choices — deluxe sedans, minivans, station wagons, coaches. Santana sedans are the big favorite.

  ….

  56. The words “deluxe sedans,” “minivans” and “station wagons” used in the text refer to _________.

  A. cars in the making B. car rental firms C. cars for rent D. car makers

  【分析】该题属于“生词”类词汇题,直接通过定位在第3段找到“生词”。发现这三个词是用来解释前面说到的“choices”,而根据“Bashi Tourism Car Rental Center offers a wide variety of choices”,可以很容易得出正确答案C。

  三、主旨题

  主旨题是阅读理解中最常见的题型之一,每年高考英语试卷中都会出现3~4题(即6~8分),考查学生对整篇文章的把握情况。解答这类题可以运用如下方法:

  1、抓主题句

  主题句表达文章中心思想,在文章中通常位于第一段首句、第一段末句和全文末句等处,阅读时要特别注意。

  2、抓文章逻辑结构

  文章主题出现的位置对应于文章逻辑结构中的一个部分,而在高考阅读中以“总-分-总”结构类型题居多。所以重读文章首、尾两段以及每段首句,对把握文章结构和主旨理解有很大帮助。

  例如:2002年高考英语北京卷阅读理解E篇

  Since 1989, Dave Thomas, who died at age 69, was one of the most recognizable faces on TV. He appeared in more than 800 commercials for the hamburger chain named for his daughter. “As long as it works,” he said in 1991, “I’ll continue do those commercials.”

  ….

  “The Dave you saw on TV was the real Dave,” says friend Pat Williams. “He wasn’t a great actor or a great speaker. He was just Joe Everybody.”

  71. What is the article mainly about?

  A. The life of Dave Thomas. B. The dream of Dave Thomas.

  C. The schooling of Dave Thomas. D. The growth of Dave Thomas’s business.

  【分析】本题是典型的主旨题,通过首段介绍Dave Thomas的商业发展,很多同学都误选了D项。但读完文章尾段后,再和首段对应,不难发现文章评论得更多还是Dave Thomas这个人,而不是他的商业经营,所以正确答案是A。

  四、结构题

  最近两年,结构题频繁在各地高考英语阅读理解题中出现,已经成为了一种独立的题型。这种题型源于TOEFL阅读的结构题,就其考查内容的不同,可分为两种:考查考生对整个文章结构的把握;考查考生根据现有文章预测后文内容的能力。解第一种类型的,一般可通过仔细阅读文章首尾两个段落以及中间各段落的首句或尾句,根据其内在逻辑关系及内容来进行判断。而解第二种类型的结构题,则在以上的基础上,需要重点依据尾段内容(特别是尾段最后一句话)做出判断。

  例如:2005年高考英语江苏卷阅读理解

  The twentieth century saw greater changes than any century before: changes for the better, changes for the worse; changes that brought a lot of benefits to human beings, changes that put man in danger. Many things caused the changes, but, in my opinion, the most important was the progress in science.

  Scientific research in physics and biology has vastly broadened our views. It has given us a deeper knowledge of the structure of matter and of the universe; it has brought us a better understandings of the nature of life and of its continuous development. Technology — the application of science — has made big advances that have benefited us in nearly every part of life.

  The continuation of such activities in the twenty-first century will result in even greater advantages to human beings: in pure science — a wider and deeper knowledge in all fields of earning; in applied science — a more reasonable sharing of material benefits, and better protection of the environment.

  Sadly, however, there is another side to the picture. The creativity of science has been employed in doing damage to mankind. The application of science and technology to the development and production of weapons of mass destruction has created a real danger to the continued existence of the human race on this planet. We have seen this happen in the case of nuclear weapons, Although their actual use has so far occurred only in the Second World War, the umber of nuclear weapons that were produced and made ready for use was so large that if the weapons had actually been used, the result could have been the ruin of the human race, as well as f many kinds of animals.

  William Shakespeare said, "The web of our life is of a mingled yarn (纱线), good and ill together.'’ The above brief review of the application of only one part of human activities — science seems to prove what Shakespeare said. But does it have to be so? Must the ill always go together with the good? Are we biologically programmed for war?

  72. Which of the following best shows the structure of the passage?

  A. B. C. D.

  【分析】该题为结构题的第一种类型。针对该题,在文章首段的最后一句话,通过转折词but找到主题,第2段、第3段的主题句都出现了段尾,都讲了科技带来的benefit,从正面印证了主题。而第4段首句的sadly和however,表明文章转入另外一个方面的论证,而且是反面的的论证。接下来的全文尾段用Shakespeare的话再次总结主题。根据这个分析,可以很容易地看出这篇文章的整体结构是“总-分-总”式,在“分”的部分有分为正、反两方面,选A。

  例如:2006年高考英语重庆卷阅读理解E篇

  The flag, the most common symbol(象征) of a nation in the modern world, is also one of the most ancient. With a clear symbolic meaning, the flag in the traditional form is still used today to mark buildings, ships and other vehicles related to a country.

  The national flag as we know it today is in no way a primitive(原始的)artifact. It is, rather, the product of thousands of years' development. Historians believe that it had two major ancestors, of which the earlier served to show wind direction.

  ….

  These flags developed very slowly into modern flags. The first known flag of a nation or a ruler was unmarked: The king of China around 1000 B.C. was known to have a white flag carried ahead of him. This practice might have been learned from Egyptians even further in the past, but it was from China that it spread over trade routes through India, then across Arab lands, and finally to Europe, where it met up with the other ancestor of the national flag.

  75. What will the author most probably talk about next?

  A. The role of China in the spread of the national flag.

  B. The second ancestor of the national flag.

  C. The use of modern flags in Europe.

  D. The importance of modern flags.

  【分析】本题属于结构题中的预测后文类型。文章首段很明显是对“flag”做了一个整体介绍,而从第2段开始推出文章要介绍的主要内容“national flag”,同时,根据第2段尾句可知national flag有两个ancestors。再结合尾段内容,特别是尾段最后一句“where it met up with the other ancestor of the national flag”,很容易推测出作者即将要讲到的内容,另外一种 ancestor。所以选B。

  五、推理题

  推理题所涉及的内容可能是文中某一句话,也可是某几句话,但做题时,都要以文字信息为依据,既不能做出在原文中找不到文字根据的推理,也不能根据表面文字信息做多步推理。所以,推理题的答案只能是根据原文表面文字信息一步推理得出的答案,即对原文某一句话或某几句话所作的同义改写(paraphrase)或综合。具体在解题时就是:根据题干中的关键词或选项中的线索找到原文的相关句,读懂原句后,对照选项进行比较,其中对相关原句进行同义改写或综合概括的一项即为正确答案。

  针对推理题的不同形式,可以采取以下做法:

  1、假如题干中有具体线索,根据具体线索找到原文相关句(一句或多句),然后做出推理;

  2、假如题干中无线索,如题干为“It can be inferred/concluded from the passage that ______”等,先快速浏览一下4个选项,根据常识等排除不太可能的选项,然后在剩余的选项中找到关键词,回到原文寻找其相关句并做出推理;

  3、如果一篇文章中其他题都未涉及文章主旨,那么推理题,如infer、conclude题型,可能与文章主旨有关,考生应该定位到文章主题所在位置(如主题句出现处);假如其他题已经涉及文章主旨,那么要求推断出来的内容可能与段落主题有关,则此时应找段落主题所在处;如果不与段落主题有关,有时与全文或段落的重要结论有关,则需要寻找与这些结论相关的文中原句。

    
  
  
  

上一篇:高考英语复习:完形填空题型解析(理)

下一篇:高考必备词汇之三

高一期末考前辅导
标签: 英语 (责任编辑:101教育小编)

免费领取体验课

姓名
手机号
年级
*图形验证码
获取验证码
免费预约
高一暑期狂补习