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2012高考英语:弄清定状语 读懂长短句(理)

来源:101教育网整理 2016-08-18 字体大小: 分享到:

  句子是构成篇章的基本单位。要读懂一篇文章,首先要理解每个句子。同样,要写出一篇文章,首先要写好每个句子。一个句子最短的基本成分是“主+谓”,最长的基本成分是“主+谓+宾+补”。基本成分的修饰语为附属成分:定语—修饰限制名词或代词的单词﹑短语或从句;状语—修饰限制谓语﹑句子或句子里一部分的单词﹑短语或从句。

  一、附属成分作定语

  英语中的定语可分为限制性定语和非限制性定语。用来作定语的有:名词﹑数词﹑形容词﹑代词﹑副词﹑介词短语﹑非谓语动词和定语从句等等。

  1. 限制性定语:单个词放在被修饰的词前面,短语和从句放在被修饰的词后面。

  (1)名词﹑形容词﹑副词﹑数词﹑代词或介词短语等;

  ①She worked in a shoe factory.

  ②Please don’t be so cruel to a ten-year-old child like that.

  副词作定语一般放在被修饰的词后面, 以表示位置的居多。如:

  ③Do you know the man over there?

  ④Poor Jack tottered toward a hospital nearby.

  present, absent, a-开头的形容词和形容词短语作定语放在被修饰的词之后。可以理解成which /that / who +is(was) / are(were)引导的定语从句的省略。如:

  ⑤All the people present at the party were his supporters.

  ⑥I think he is the oldest man alive in the small town.

  (1)非谓语动词(短语),一般可转换成限制性定语从句。

  ①Let’s find a restaurant to have lunch in.

  句中黑体部分可改为:where/in which we can have lunch

  ②The repairs cost a lot, but it’s money well spent.

  句中黑体部分可改为:that/which was well spent

  【注】 -ing形式作定语时只能用一般式, 表示与谓语动词动作同时发生,不可使用其完成式。如:

  ③Suddenly, a tall man driving a golden carriage seized the girl and took her away, disappearing into the woods.

  句中黑体部分可改为:who/that was driving a golden carriage

  ④The flowers smelling sweet in the botanic garden attract the visitors to the beauty of nature.

  句中黑体部分可改为:that/which smell sweet in the botanic garden

  (3)限制性定语从句。

  ①We are living in an age when/in which many things are done on computer.

  ②Many people who had seen the film were afraid to go to the forest when they remembered the scenes in which people were eaten by the tiger.

  2. 非限制性定语,一般放在后面,对中心词起修饰作用,而不对其进行限制。省略之后对句子意思的表达影响不大。

  (1)名词﹑数词﹑形容词等短语,可理解为一个省略的非限制性定语从句。

  ①David, our English teacher, appreciated your idea much.

  句中黑体部分可改为:who was our English teacher

  ②He was sent to France, a European country.

  句中黑体部分可改为:which was a European country

  (2)非谓语动词(短语),一般可转换成非限制性定语从句。如:

  The manager, making it clear to us that he didn’t agree with us, left the meeting room.

  句中黑体部分可改为: who made it clear to us that he didn’t agree with us

  (3)非限制性定语从句,常可转换成分词或并列句。如:

  ①John said he’d been working in the office for an hour, which was true.

  句中黑体部分可改为:and it was true

  ②The famous basketball star, who tried to make a comeback, attracted a lot of attention.

  句中黑体部分可改为:trying to make a comeback

  【注】 as引导的非限制性定语从句常可提前,但and引导的并列句应在前一个分句后。如:

  As is often the case, we have worked out the production plan.

  可改为:We have worked out the production plan and it is often the case.

  二、附属成分作状语

  状语是用来修饰限制谓语﹑整个句子或句子里的一部分。常用来作状语的有:形容词﹑副词﹑介词短语﹑非谓语动词和状语从句等等。状语和句子间的逻辑关系各有不同,可以分成不同的状语:原因状语、时间状语、条件状语、结果状语、让步状语、伴随状语、目的状语、结果状语等等。

  (1)形容词﹑副词和介词短语等作状语。如:

  ①Thirsty, he went into a tea house. (thirsty 是形容词,可看成是分词短语being thirsty的省略,对主语he进行补充说明)

  ②She sat quietly in her seat.(quietly是副词,修饰动作sat)

  【注】 形容词通常不作状语,偶尔有形容词作状语,通常表示原因、方式、伴随、时间、让步等。如:

  ③He came in, full of fear. (表伴随,相当于When he came in, he was full of fear.)

  ④Ripe, the fruit tastes better. (表时间,相当于When the fruit is ripe.)

  ⑤Right or wrong, I will stand on your side. (表让步,相当于Whether you are right or wrong.)

  (2)非谓语动词(短语),可转换成状语从句。如:

  ①Lost in the mountains for a week, the two students were finally saved by the local police. =句中黑体部分可补充为:After they were lost in the mountains for a week.

  ②It was unbelievable that the fans waited outside the gym for three hours just to have a look at the sports stars.

  句中黑体部分可改为:in order that they could have a look at the sports stars

  (3)状语从句。

  ①The house could fall down soon if no one does some quick repair work. (表条件)

  ②Roses need special care so that they can live through winter. (表目的)

  ③Since /as the weather is so bad, we have to delay our journey.(表原因)

  ④He speaks English as though he were an Englishman. (表方式)

  熟练掌握句子的附属成分,对准确理解句子意思大有裨益,对长句的理解很有好处。在阅读中,有利于将长句读短,去掉枝蔓,抓住核心,提高篇章的理解能力。了解句子的附属成分也有助于写作。正确使用好句子附属成分能将意思表达更加准确,叙述更加生动,丰富表达方式,增强文章感染力。

  真题精练

  1. (2006年上海)I made so many changes in my composition that only I could read it. To _____ else, it was hard to make out.

  A. none B. everyone C. someone D. anyone

  2. (2006年北京)There have been several new events _____ to the program for the 2008 Olympic Games.

  A. add B. to add C. adding D. added

  3. (2006年广东)No matter how frequently _____, the works of Beethoven still attract people all over the world.

  A. performing B. performed

  C. to be performed D. being performed

  4. (2006年陕西)He hurried to the booking office only __ that all the tickets had been sold out.

  A. to tell B. to be told C. telling D. told

  5. (2006年天津)The Beatle, ___ many of you are old enough to remember, came from Liverpool.

  A. what B. that C. how D. as

  6. (2006年江西)The hurricane damaged many houses and business buildings; _____, it caused 20 deaths.

  A. or else B. therefore

  C. after all D. besides

  7. (2006年湖南)I had just stepped out the bathroom and was busily drying myself with a towel _____ I heard the steps.

  A. while B. when C. since D. after

  8. (2006年浙江)I was given three books on cooking, the first _____ I really enjoyed.

  A. of that B. of which C. that D. which

  9. (2006年上海)—It’s a top secret.

  —Yes, I see. I will keep the secret _____ you and me.

  A. with B. around C. among D. between

  10. (2006年江苏)My most famous relative of all, _____ who really left his mark on America, was Red Sussel, my great-grand father.

  A. one B. the one C. he D. someone

  (Keys: 1. D 2. D 3. B 4. B 5. D 6. D 7. B 8. B 9. D 10. C

    
  
  
  

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