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专题辅导:高二英语虚拟语气用法指导

来源:101教育网整理 2016-08-22 字体大小: 分享到:

  虚拟语气在条件从句中的用法

  条件从句有两类,一是真实条件句,另一是虚拟条件句。

  如果假设的情况可能发生,是真实条件句,这种情况下谓语用陈述语气。

  如:If time permits, we’ll go fishing together.

  如果时间允许,我们就一起去钓鱼。

  如果假设的情况是不存在的或不大可能发生的,则是虚拟条件句。

  如:If you had come yesterday, you would have met that famous professor.

  如果你昨天来,你就会见到那位著名的教授了。

  (隐含的事实是:你昨天没来,也没见到那位著名教授)。

  在含有虚拟条件句的复合句中,主从句的谓语都要用虚拟语气。

  注:主句中的should只用于第一人称,但在美国英语中,should常被would代替;从句中的should可用于各种人称。

  表示与现在事实相反的假设和结果。

  如:If I were you, I should(would ,could, might)tell him the truth.

  要是我是你,我就会告诉他真相了。(事实上我不是你)

  If she had time, she would(could, might)help me.

  如果她有时间,她就会帮我了。(事实上她没有时间)

  表示与过去事实相反的假设和结果。

  如:If I had known your telephone number yesterday, I should (would, could, might)have

  telephoned you.

  如果昨天我知道了你的电话号码,我就会给你打电话了。(事实上我昨天不知道你的电话号码。)

  If you had taken my advice, you wouldn’t (couldn’t) have failed in the exam.

  如果你听了我的建议,你就不会考试不及格。(事实上你根本没听我的。

  表示与将来事实可能相反的假设和结果。

  如:If it should rain, the crops would(could, might)be saved.

  假如天下雨,庄稼可能就收获了。

  ---What would happen if I put the paper on the fire?

  ---It would burn.

  ---我若把只放在火上会怎么样?

  ---纸会烧着。

  注:在表示与将来事实可能相反的条件从句中,were to + 动词原形比较正式,常用于书面语中。如:

  If you were to go to Beijing, you would (could, might) have a chance to visit Tian An Men Square.

  虚拟语气的其它用法

  虚拟语气在主语从句中的用法

  在“It is important (strange, natural, necessary) that…”这类句型中,that所引导的主语从句中的谓语动词常用 “(should)+动词原形”结构,表示某事是“重要”,“奇怪”,“自然”,“必要”等意义。

  如:It is important that every Beijinger (should) be able to speak English.

  重要的是每个北京人能说英语。

  It is necessary that he (should) be sent to hospital at once.

  有必要马上把他送医院。

  虚拟语气在宾语从句中的用法

  在动词wish后的宾语从句中,表示与现在或过去的事实相反,或对将来的主观愿望,从句通常省略连词that。

  表示对现在情况的虚拟:从句动词用过去式或过去进行式(be的过去式用were )表示。如:

  I wish I knew the answer to the question.

  我希望知道这个问题的答案。(可惜不知道。)

  I wish it were spring in my hometown all the year around.

  但愿我的家乡四季如春。(只是愿望,实际根本不可能实现。)

  表示对过去情况的虚拟:从句动词用 had+过去分词。如:

  I wish (that) I hadn’t wasted so much time.

  我后悔不该浪费这么多时间。(实际上已经浪费掉了。

  He wishes (wished) he hadn’t lost the chance.

  他真希望没有失去机会。(事实上机会已经失去了,他感到惋惜。)

  表示对将来的主观愿望:谓语动词形式为 “would/should/could/might+动词原形”,此时要注意,主句的主语与从句的主语不能相同,因为主句的主语所期望的从句动作能否实现,取决于从句主语的态度或意愿(非动作名词除外)。如:

  I wish it would stop raining.

  但愿雨能停止。

  I wish you would be quiet.

  我希望你安静一些。

  在suggest(建议), demand(要求), order(命令), propose(建议), insist(坚持要做), command(命令), request(要求), desire(希望)等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用 “(should)+动词原形”,表示建议,要求,命令等。如:

  I suggest that we (should) start the meeting at once.

  我建议马上开会。

  The graduate insisted that he (should) go to work in the south.

  这位即将毕业的学生坚持要到南方去工作。

  注:当suggest表示暗示,主语为something;insist表示坚持观点时,后接的宾语从句当用真实语气。比较:

  His silence suggested that he agreed with my decision.

  他的沉默暗示着他赞成我的决定。

  He suggested that I (should) stick to my decision.

  他建议我坚持自己的决定。

  He insists that doing morning exercises does good to people’s health.

  他坚持认为做早操对健康有益。

  He insists that he (should) do morning exercises every day.

  他坚持他每天都要早操

  虚拟语气在表语从句中的用法

  当主语为advice, suggestion, order, proposal等词时后接表语从句,表语从句中的谓语动词常用“(should)+动词原形”结构,表示某人建议、劝告、命令等的内容。

  如:

  My advice is that you should practise speaking English as often as possible.

  我的建议是你尽可能经常地练习说英语。

  The order from the commander was that the troops should set off for the front immediately.

  司令官的命令是部队立即开拔去前线。

  特殊的虚拟语气结构

  虚拟语气用在状语从句中

  由as if 或as ,though引导的状语从句表示比较或方式时,从句中的谓语动词用虚拟语气。动词形式用动词的过去式(be→were)或had+过去分词。如:

  The teacher treats the student as if he were her own child.

  这位老师带这位学生就象她的亲生孩子一样。

  He speaks as if he had been to the United States.

  他说得好象他真的到过美国似的。

  在It is time (that) …; I’d rather (that)…句型中从句的谓语动词常用动词的过去式表示虚拟语气,意思是“该干某事了,时间已经有些晚了”“我宁愿/希望”。如:

  It is time that we did something to stop pollution.

  该我们做些什么制止污染的时候了。

  It is time that Father picked up Lily from the kindergarten.

  该父亲去幼儿园接莉莉的时候了。

  I’d rather you told me the truth.

  我真希望你告诉我真相。

  I’d rather I didn’t see you again.

  我宁愿不再见着你。

  虚拟语气在同位语从句中的用法

  在名词advice, suggestion, order, proposal等后接的同位语从句中,谓语动词用虚拟语气,其形式为 “(should)+动词原形”,说明“建议”,“劝告”,“命令”等的具体内容。

  如:The order came that the work should be finished two days ahead of time.

  提前两天完成工作的命令传来了。

  Reluctantly she accepted their proposal that she should be operated on.

  她勉强接受了他们要她去接受手术的建议。

  注意: 有时条件从句中的动作和结果与主句中的动作,发生的时间不一致,这时动作的形式应根据它所表示的时间加以调整。如:

  If you had followed my advice, you would be able to finish the work now.

  如果你当时听了我的话,现在就能完成这份工作了。

  (从句说明过去,主句说明现在。)

  If I were you, I would have gone to her birthday party.

  如果我是你,我就去参加她的生日晚会了。(从句说明现在,主句说明过去。)

  If you hadn’t lent me some money, I couldn’t have bought the new house and most likely

  I would be still living in the dangerous house now.

  假若你不借钱给我,我不可能买下这幢新房,很可能现在还住在危房里。

  (从句说明过去,主句说明过去和现在。)

  条件从句中省去if的情况

  在if引导的表示虚拟的条件状语从句中,常可以省略if,将had, were或should提至句首。

  如:Had I seen the film, I would have discussed it with them last night.

  假如我看了那部电影,昨晚我就可以和他们一起讨论了。

  Were I a bird, I could fly freely.

  假如我是一只小鸟,我就能自由翱翔。

  Should it rain next week the farmers would have a good harvest.

  要是下周能下雨的话,农民们就能有个好收成了。

  语法专练——虚拟语气

  1. I enjoyed the movie very much. I wish I ______ the book from which it was made.

  A. have read         B. had read

  C. should have read     D. are reading

  2. You are late. If you _____ a few minutes earlier, you _____ him.

  A. come; would meet      B. had come; would have met

  C. come; will meet       D. had come; would meet

  3. The two students talked as if they _____ friends for years.

  A. should be      B. would be

  C. have been      D. had been

  4. It is important that I _____ with Mr. Williams immediately.

  A. speak        B. spoke

  C. will speak     D. to speak

  5. If the doctor had come earlier, the poor child would not _____.

  A. have laid there for two hours

  B. have been lied there for two hours

  C. have lied there for two hours

  D. have lain there for two hours

  6. Let’s say you could go there again, how _____ feel?

  A. will you      B. should you

  C. would you     D. do you

  7. I can’t stand him. He always talks as though he _____ everything.

  A. knew            B. knows

  C. has known          D. had known

  8. _____ the fog, we should have reached our school.

  A. Because of    B. In spite of

  C. In case of   D. But for

  9. If you had told me in advance, I _____ him at the airport.

  A. would meet       B. would had met

  C. would have met     D. would have meet

  10. Mike can take his car apart and put it back together again. I certainly wish

  he________ me how.

  A. teaches          B. will teach

  C. has taught        D. would teach

  11. I would have told him the answer had it been possible, but I _____ so busy then.

  A. had been       B. were

  C. was          D. would be

  12. He suggested that they _____ use a trick instead of fighting.

  A. should        B. would

  C. could         D. might

  13. My father did not go to New York; the doctor suggested that he _____ there.

  A. not went      B. won’t go

  C. not go       D. not to go

  14. Would you rather I _____ to buy a new bike?

  A. decided        B. will decide

  C. have decided     D. shall decide

  15. You look so tired tonight. It is time you _____.

  A. go to sleep        B. fell asleep

  C. go to bed        D. went to bed

  16. If she could sew, _____.

  A. she make a dress        B. she would have made a shirt

  C. she will make a shirt    D. she would had made a coat

  17. _____ today, he would get there by Friday.

  A. Would he leave     B. Was he leaving

  C. Were he to leave    D. If he leaves

  18. If I _____ you, I _____ more attention to English idioms and phrases.

  A. was; shall pay         B. am; will pay

  C. would be; would pay      D. were; would pay

  19. The law requires that everyone _____ his car checked at least once a year.

  A. has   B. had  C. have    D. will have

  20. It is strange that he _____ so.

  A. would say      B. would speak

  C. should say      D. will speak

  21. Had I known her name, _____

  A. or does she know mine?   B. and where does she live?

  C. she would be beautiful.   D. I would have invited her to lunch.

  22. He was very busy yesterday; otherwise, he _____ to the meeting.

  A. would come         B. came

  C. would have come      D. will come

  23. The librarian insisted that John _____ no more books from the library before he

  returned all the books he had borrowed.

  A. will take   B. took  C. take  D. takes

  24. I do not have a job. I would find one but I _____ no time.

  A. had         B. didn’t have

  C. had had       D. have

  25. Without heat and sunlight, plants on the earth _______ well.

  A. would not grow     B. will not grow

  C. had not grown     D. would not be grown

  26. If only the alarm clock ________ then!

  A. had rung      B. ring

  C. would ring     D. rang

  27. The order from the commander was that the troops ____for the front immediately.

  A. set off        B. had set off

  C. would set off     D. shall set off

  28. Reluctantly she accepted their proposal that she _______ on.

  A. should operate    B. be operated

  C. operate        D. would operate

  参考答案

  1-5 BBDAD 6-10 CADCD 11-15 CACAD 16-20 BCDCC

  21-25 DCCDA 26-28 AAB

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