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高二英语非谓语动词的概念用法及其专练

来源:101教育网整理 2016-08-22 字体大小: 分享到:

  导读:高二乃至整个高中英语学习中,非谓语动词是一个比较难学的知识点,下面是101网校特为大家整合的非谓语动词的使用和练习,希望大家能把非谓语动词掌握好。

  一、非谓语动词的概念

  非谓语动词是在句子中充当除谓语以外的句子成分的动词形式是动词的非谓语形式.动词一般在句子中充当谓语.在句中可起名词,形容词,副词的作用,在句中充当主语,宾语,表语,补语,定语或状语.即动词的非谓语形式除了不能独立作谓语外,可以承担句子的任何成分3种形式:不定式,分词(现在分词、过去分词),动名词

  1.非谓语动词与谓语动词的相同点有:

  (1)如果是及物动词都可与宾语连用,例如:

  Theybuiltagarden.

  Theysuggestedbuildingagarden.

  (2)都可以被状语修饰:

  Thesuitfitshimverywell.

  Thesuitusedtofithimverywell.

  (3)都有主动与被动,“体”式(一般式;进行式;完成式)的变化。例如:

  Hewaspunishedbyhisparents.(谓语动词被动语态)

  Heavoidedbeingpunishedbyhisparents.(动名词的被动式)

  Wehavewrittenthecomposition.(谓语动词的完成时)

  Havingwrittenthecomposition,wehandeditin.(现在分词的完成式)

  (4)都可以有逻辑主语

  Theystartedtheworkatonce.(谓语动词的逻辑主语)

  Thebossorderedthemtostartthework.(动词不定式的逻辑主语)

  WeareLeaguemembers.(谓语动词的主语)

  WebeingLeaguemember,theworkwaswelldone.

  (现在分词的逻辑主语)

  2、非谓语动词与谓语动词的不同点有:

  (1)非谓语动词可以有名词作用(如动词不定式和动名词),在句中做主语、宾语、表语。

  (2)非谓语动词可以有形容词作用(如动词不定式和分词),在句中做定语、表语或宾语补足语。

  (3)非谓语动词可以有副词作用(如动词不定式和分词),在句中作状语。

  (4)谓语动词在句中作谓语,受主语的人称和数的限制;非谓语动词在句中不能单独作谓语,它不受主语的人称和数的限制。

  二、非谓语动词用法

  (一)动词不定式:(to)+do,具有名词、形容词、副词的特征。

  1.不定式的形式:(以动词write为例)

  否定式:not+(to)do

  (1)一般式:不定式的一般式所表示的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生或发生在谓语动词动作之后,

  例如:

  I'mgladtomeetyou.

  Heseemstoknowalot.

  Weplantopayavisit.

  Hewantstobeanartist.

  Thepatientaskedtobeoperatedonatonce.

  Theteacherorderedtheworktobedone.

  (2)进行式:不定式的进行式所表示的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生,例如:

  Theboypretendedtobeworkinghard.

  Heseemstobereadinginhisroom.

  (3)完成式:不定式的完成式表示的动作发生在谓语动词动作之前,例如:

  Iregrettedtohavetoldalie.

  Ihappenedtohaveseenthefilm.

  Heispleasedtohavemethisfriend.

  2.不定式的句法功能:

  (1)作主语:

  Tofinishtheworkintenminutesisveryhard.

  Toloseyourheartmeansfailure.

  动词不定式短语作主语时,常用it作形式主语,真正的主语不定式置于句后,例如上面两句可用如下形式:

  Itisveryhardtofinishtheworkintenminutes.

  Itmeansfailuretoloseyourheart.

  常用句式有:1、It+be+名词+todo。2、Ittakessb.+sometime+todo。3、It+be+形容词+ofsb+todo。4、It+be+形容词+forsb.+todo。常用careless,,clever,good,foolish,honest,kind,lazy,nice,right,silly,stupid,wise,等表示赞扬或批评的形容词,不定式前的sb.可作其逻辑主语。

  (2)作表语:

  Herjobistocleanthehall.

  Heappearstohavecaughtacold.

  (3)作宾语:

  常与不定式做宾语连用的动词有:want,hope,wish,offer,fail,plan,learn,pretend,refuse,manage,help,agree,promise,prefer,如果不定式(宾语)后面有宾语补足语,则用it作形式宾语,真正的宾语(不定式)后置,放在宾语补足语后面,例如:

  MarxfounditimportanttostudythesituationinRussia.

  动词不定式也可充当介词宾语,如:

  Ihavenochoicebuttostayhere.

  HedidnothinglastSundaybutrepairhisbike.

  动词不定式前有时可与疑问词连用,如:

  HegaveussomeadviceonhowtolearnEnglish.

  (4)作宾语补足语:

  在复合宾语中,动词不定式可充当宾语补足语,如下动词常跟这种复合宾语:want,wish,ask,tell,order,beg,permit,help,advise,persuade,allow,prepare,cause,force,callon,waitfor,invite.

  此外,介词有时也与这种复合宾语连用,如:

  Withalotofworktodo,hedidn'tgotothecinema.

  有些动词如make,let,see,watch,hear,feel,have等与不带有to的不定式连用,但改为被动语态时,不定式要加to,如:

  Isawhimcrosstheroad.

  Hewasseentocrosstheroad.

  (5)作定语:

  动词不定式作定语,放在所修饰的名词或代词后。与所修饰名词有如下关系:

  ①动宾关系:

  Ihaveameetingtoattend.

  注意:不定式为不及物动词时,所修饰的名词如果是地点、工具等,应有必要的介词,如:

  Hefoundagoodhousetolivein.

  Thechildhasnothingtoworryabout.

  Whatdidyouopenitwith?

  如果不定式修饰time,place,way,可以省略介词:

  Hehasnoplacetolive.

  Thisisthebestwaytoworkoutthisproblem.

  如果不定式所修饰名词是不定式动作承受者,不定式可用主动式也可用被动式:

  Haveyougotanythingtosend?

  Haveyougotanythingtobesent?

  ②说明所修饰名词的内容:

  Wehavemadeaplantofinishthework.

  ③被修饰名词是不定式逻辑主语:

  Heisthefirsttogethere.

  (6)作状语:

  ①表目的:

  Heworkeddayandnighttogetthemoney.

  Shesoldherhairtobuythewatchchain.

  注意不定式放句首时,逻辑主语与句子主语要一致:

  wrong:Tosavemoney,everymeanshasbeentried.

  right:Tosavemoney,hehastriedeverymeans.

  wrong:TolearnEnglishwell,adictionaryisneeded.

  right:TolearnEnglishwell,heneedsadictionary.

  ②表结果:

  Hearrivedlatetofindthetraingone.

  常用only放在不定式前表示强调:

  Ivisitedhimonlytofindhimout.

  ③表原因:

  Theywereverysadtohearthenews.

  ④表程度:

  It'stoodarkforustoseeanything.

  Thequestionissimpleforhimtoanswer.

  (7)作独立成分:

  Totellyouthetruth,Idon'tlikethewayhetalked.

  (8)不定式的省略:保留to省略do动词。

  Ifyoudon'twanttodoit,youdon'tneedto.

  (9)不定式的并列:第二个不定式可省略to。

  Hewishedtostudymedicineandbecomeadoctor.

  (二)动名词:

  动名词既具有动词的一些特征,又具有名词的句法功能。

  1.动名词的形式:

  否定式:not+动名词

  (1)一般式:

  Seeingisbelieving.眼见为实。

  (2)被动式:

  Hecametothepartywithoutbeinginvited.他未被邀请就来到了晚会。

  (3)完成式:

  Werememberedhavingseenthefilm.我们记得看过这部电影。

  (4)完成被动式:

  HeforgothavingbeentakentoGuangzhouwhenhewasfiveyearsold.

  他忘记五岁时曾被带到广州去过。

  (5)否定式:not+动名词

  Iregretnotfollowinghisadvice.我后悔没听他的劝告。

  (6)复合结构:物主代词(或名词所有格)+动名词

  Hesuggestedourtryingitonceagain.他建议我们再试一次。

  HisnotknowingEnglishtroubledhimalot.

  他不懂英语给他带来许多麻烦。

  2.动名词的句法功能:

  (1)作主语:

  Readingaloudisveryhelpful.朗读是很有好处的。

  Collectingstampsisinteresting.集邮很有趣。

  当动名词短语作主语时常用it作形式主语。

  It'snousequarrelling.争吵是没用的。

  (2)作表语:

  Intheantcity,thequeen'sjobislayingeggs.

  在蚂蚁王国,蚁后的工作是产卵。

  (3)作宾语:

  Theyhaven'tfinishedbuildingthedam.他们还没有建好大坝。

  Wehavetopreventtheairfrombeingpolluted.

  我们必须阻止空气被污染。

  注意动名词既可作动词宾语也可作介词宾语,如上面两个例句。此外,动名词作宾语时,若跟有宾语补足语,则常用形式宾语it,例如:

  Wefounditnogoodmakingfunofothers.我们发现取笑他人不好。

  要记住如下动词及短语只跟动名词作宾语:

  enjoy,finish,suggest,avoid(避免),excuse,delay,imagine,keep,miss,consider,admit(承认),deny(否认),mind,permit,forbid,practise,risk(冒险),appreciate(感激),bebusy,beworth,feellike,can'tstand,can'thelp(情不自禁地),thinkof,dreamof,befondof,prevent…(from),keep…from,stop…(from),protect…from,setabout,beengagedin,spend…(in),succeedin,beusedto,lookforwardto,objectto,payattentionto,insiston,feellike

  (4)作定语:

  Hecan'twalkwithoutawalking-stick.他没有拐杖不能走路。

  Isthereaswimmingpoolinyourschool?你们学校有游泳池吗?

  (5)作同位语:

  Thecave,hishiding-placeissecret.那个山洞,他藏身的地方很秘密。

  Hishabit,listeningtothenewsontheradioremainsunchanged.

  他收听收音机新闻节目的习惯仍未改变。

  (三)现在分词:

  现在分词既具有动词的一些特征,又具有形容词和副词的句法功能。

  1、现在分词的形式:

  否定式:not+现在分词

  (1)现在分词的主动语态:现在分词主动语态的一般式表示与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,完成

  式表示的动作在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生,常作状语。例如:

  Theywenttothepark,singingandtalking.他们边唱边说向公园走去。

  Havingdonehishomework,heplayedbasket-ball.做完作业,他开始打篮球。

  (2)现在分词的被动语态:一般式表示与谓语动词同时发生的被动的动作,完成式表示发生在谓语动

  词之前的被动的动作。

  Theproblembeingdiscussedisveryimportant.正在被讨论的问题很重要。

  Havingbeentoldmanytimes,thenaughtyboymadethesamemistake.

  被告诉了好几遍,这个淘气的孩子又犯了同一个错误。

  2.现在分词的句法功能:

  (1)作定语:现在分词作定语,当分词单独做定语时,放在所修饰的名词前;如果是分词短语做定语

  放在名词后。

  Inthefollowingyearsheworkedevenharder.

  在后来的几年中,他学习更努力了。

  Themanspeakingtotheteacherisourmonitor'sfather.

  正与老师谈话的那个人是我们班长的父亲。

  现在分词作定语相当于一个定语从句的句法功能,如:inthefollowingyears也可用intheyearsthatfollowed;themanspeakingtotheteacher可改为themanwhoisspeakingtotheteacher.

  (2)现在分词作表语:

  Thefilmbeingshowninthecinemaisexciting.正在这家上演的电影很棒。

  Thepresentsituationisinspiring.当前的形势鼓舞人心。

  be+doing既可能表示现在进行时,也可能是现在分词做表语,它们的区别在于be+doing表示进行的动作是进行时,而表示特征时是系动词be与现在分词构成系表结构。

  (3)作宾语补足语:

  如下动词后可跟现在分词作宾语补足语:

  see,watch,hear,feel,find,get,keep,notice,observe,listento,lookat,leave,catch等。例如:

  Canyouhearhersingingthesonginthenextroom?你能听见她在隔壁唱歌吗?

  Hekeptthecarwaitingatthegate.他让小汽车在门口等着。

  (4)现在分词作状语:

  ①作时间状语:

  (While)Workinginthefactory,hewasanadvancedworker.

  在工厂工作时,他是一名先进工人。

  ②作原因状语:

  BeingaLeaguemember,heisalwayshelpingothers.由于是共青团员,他经常帮助他人。

  ③作方式状语,表示伴随:

  Hestayedathome,cleaningandwashing.他呆在家里,又擦又洗。

  ④作条件状语:

  (If)Playingallday,youwillwasteyourvaluabletime.

  要是整天玩,你就会浪费宝贵的时间。

  ⑤作结果状语:

  Hedroppedtheglass,breakingitintopieces.他把杯子掉了,结果摔得粉碎。

  ⑥作目的状语:

  Hewentswimmingtheotherday.几天前他去游泳了。

  ⑦作让步状语:

  Thoughrainingheavily,itclearedupverysoon.

  虽然雨下得很大,但不久天就晴了。

  ⑧与逻辑主语构成独立主格:

  Iwaitingforthebus,abirdfellonmyhead.

  我等汽车时,一只鸟落到我头上。

  Alltheticketshavingbeensoldout,theywentawaydisappointedly.

  所有的票已经卖光了,他们失望地离开了。

  Timepermitting,we'lldoanothertwoexercises.

  如果时间允许,我们将做另两个练习。

  有时也可用with(without)+名词(代词宾格)+分词形式

  Withthelightsburning,hefellasleep.他点着灯睡着了。

  ⑨作独立成分:

  udgingfrom(by)hisappearance,hemustbeanactor.

  从外表看,他一定是个演员。

  Generallyspeaking,girlsaremorecareful.一般说来,女孩子更细心。

  (四)过去分词:

  过去分词只有一种形式:规则动词由动词原形加词尾-ed构成。不规则动词的过去分词没有统一的规则要求,要一一记住。

  过去分词的句法功能:

  1.过去分词作定语:

  OurclasswentonanorganizedtriplastMonday.上周一我们班开展了一次有组织的旅行。

  Thoseelectedascommitteememberswillattendthemeeting.当选为委员的人将出席这次会。

  注意当过去分词是单词时,一般用于名词前,如果是过去分词短语,就放在名词的后面。过去分词做定语相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。

  2.过去分词作表语:

  Thewindowisbroken.窗户破了。

  Theywerefrightenedatthesadsight.他们对眼前悲惨的景象感到很害怕。

  注意:be+过去分词,如果表示状态是系表结构,如果表示被动的动作是被动语态。区别:

  Thewindowisbroken.(系表)

  Thewindowwasbrokenbytheboy.(被动)

  有些过去分词是不及物动词构成的,不表示被动,只表示完成。如:

  boiledwater(开水)fallenleaves(落叶)

  newlyarrivedgoods(新到的货)therisensun(升起的太阳)

  thechangedworld(变了的世界)

  这类过去分词有:gone,come,fallen,risen,changed,arrived,returned,passed等。

  3.过去分词作宾语补足语:

  Iheardthesongsungseveraltimeslastweek.

  上周我听见这首歌被唱了好几次。

  有时过去分词做with短语中的宾语补足语:

  Withtheworkdone,theywentouttoplay.工作做完了,他们出去玩去了。

  4.过去分词作状语:

  Praisedbytheneighbours,hebecametheprideofhisparents.

  受到邻居们的表扬,他成为父母的骄傲。(表示原因)

  Onceseen,itcanneverbeforgotten.

  一旦它被看见,人们就忘不了。(表示时间)

  Givenmoretime,I'llbeabletodoitbetter.

  如果给予更多的时间,我能做得更好。(表示条件)

  Thoughtoldofthedanger,hestillriskedhislifetosavetheboy.

  虽然被告之有危险,他仍然冒生命危险去救那个孩子。(表示让步)

  Filledwithhopesandfears,heenteredthecave.心中充满了希望与恐惧,他走进山洞。

  非谓语动词考点分析

  1.TheOlympicGames,______in776B.C,did’tincludewomenplayersuntil1919.

  A.firstplayingB.tobefirstplayedC.firstplayedD.tobefirstplaying

  析:根据题干,必须选表示被动的选项,故排除A、D;因B选项表“将要被举行”意,不合题干之用,只有C选项(相当于whichwasfirstplayed)才合用。

  2.Europeanfootballisplayedin80countries,______itthemostpopularsportintheworld.

  A.makingB.makesC.madeD.tomake

  析:B、C是谓语动词,在此不可用。D项tomake或表目的,或表“将要使得”,这都不合题干情景。只有A.making,可作状语,表结果。再举一现在分词作结果状语例:

  Thebuswasheldupbythesnowstorm,causingthedelay.公共汽车被大风雪所阻,因而耽误了。

  3.LittleJimshouldlove______tothetheatrethisevening.

  A.tobetakenB.totakeC.beingtakenD.taking

  析:根据thisevening,应选表示将来义的选项,C、D应排除。Take后无宾语,必然要用被动式,故答案为A。

  4.Johnwasmade______thetruckforaweekasapunishment.

  A.towashB.washingC.washD.tobewashing

  析:根据bemadetodosth.句式,可定答案为A。

  5.Thepatientwaswarned______oilyfoodaftertheoperation.

  A.toeatnotB.eatingnotC.nottoeatD.noteating

  析:根据warnsb.(not)todosth.句式,可排除B、D两项;又根据非谓语动词的否定式not总是在首位的规律,又可排除A,而定C。

  6.——Iusuallygotherebytrain.——Whynot______byboatforachange?

  A.totrygoingB.tryingtogoC.totryandgoD.trygoing

  析:此题可根据whynot后直接跟原形动词规律而一举确定正确答案为D。若将B项改为trytogo,则要根据其与trygoing意义之别来确定答案。依据题干对话内容,乙方是建议甲方尝试乘船变变花样,所以答案仍为D。

  7.______areply,hedecidedtowriteagain.

  A.NotreceivingB.ReceivingnotC.NothavingreceivedD.Havingnotreceived

  析:非谓语动词的否定式not应置于首位,B、D皆为错误形式。A项不能表达先于decided的动作,只有选C项才表没收到信在先,决定再写信在后,所以C为正确答案。

  8.CharlesBabbageisgenerallyconsidered______thefirstcomputer.

  A.toinventB.inventingC.tohaveinventedD.havingmvented

  析:consider表“考虑”意时,其后动词用doing形式,此处不表“考虑”,而表“认为”,这时consider后作宾语补足语或主语补足语多为todo,tohavedone,tobe等形式。据此可排除B、D两个选项。又因A表“要发明”意,不合题用,只有C表“发明了”意,才合题用,故选C。

  9.Mostoftheartists______tothepartywerefromSouthAfrica.

  A.invitedB.toinviteC.beinginvitedD.hadbeeninvited

  析:“被邀请参加晚会”,应选表被动意的选项,B不可用。D项少引导词who,也应排除。又因短暂动词的现在分词被动式不可作定语,C也应排除,只有A.invited(=whowereinvited)才是正确答案。

  10.Themurdererwasbroughtin,withhishands______behindhisback.

  A.beingtiedB.havingtiedC.tobetiredD.tied

  析:B表主动意,应排除。C表“将要被捆绑”,A表“正在被捆绑”都不合题意,只有D项填入空白才能表达“双手被反绑着”这一意思,符合题干情景。再看一类似例句:Hecamein,(with)hisheadheldhigh.他昂首走了进来。

  三、非谓语动词专练

  1.______moreattention,thetreescouldhavegrownbetter.

  A.TogiveB.HavinggivenC.GivenD.Giving

  2.Thefirsttextbooks______forteachingEnglishasaforeignlanguagecameoutinthe16thcentury.

  A.tobewrittenB.writtenC.beingwrittenD.havingwritten

  3.Themissingboyswerelastseen______neartheriver.

  A.toplayB.playC.tobeplayingD.playing

  4.______inthought,healmostranintothecarinfrontofhim.

  A.ToloseB.LostC.HavinglostD.Losing

  5.Whenpassingmehepretended______me.

  A.toseeB.nothavingseenC.tohavenotseenD.nottohaveseen

  6.Thechildreninsisted______thereonfoot.

  A.theygoingB.theywouldgoC.ontheirgoingD.going

  7.Hestillremembers______toShanghaiwhenhewasveryyoung.

  A.takingB.beingtakenC.takenD.havingtaken

  8.______therailwaystation,wehadabreak,only______thetrainhadleft.

  A.Arrivingat;tofindB.Comingto;discoveringthat

  C.Onarrivingat;findingoutD.Hurryingto;tohavefoundout

  9.Withtheboy______theway,wehadnotrouble______theway______toZhongshanPark.

  A.leading;finding;leadingB.tolead;found;toleadC.led;finding;ledD.leading;found;led

  10.______thesepictures,Icouldn’thelpthinkingofthosedayswhenIwasinBeingand______fromthetopofathirty-storeyedbuilding,Beijinglooksmorebeautiful.

  A.Seeing;seenB.Seen;seeingC.Seeing;seeingD.Seen;seen

  11.IcanhardlyimaginePeter______acrosstheAtlanticOceaninfivedays.

  A.tohavesailedB.tosailC.sailingD.sail

  12.Ifyouwaveyourbookinfrontofyourface,youcanfeeltheair______againstyourface.

  A.movedB.movingC.movesD.tomove

  13.______isknowntoall,Chinawillbean______andpowerfulcountryin20or30years’time.

  A.That;advancingB.This;advancedC.As;advancedD.It;advancing

  14.Whileshopping,peoplesometimescan’thelp______intobuyingsomethingtheydon’treallyneed.

  A.persuadeB.persuadingC.beingpersuadedD.bepersuaded

  15.Therewasterriblenoise______thesuddenburstoflight.

  A.followedB.followingC.tobefollowedD.beingfollowed

  16.Pleaseexcusemy______inwithout______.

  A.come;permittedB.coming;permittedC.comimg;beingpermittedD.tocome;beingpermitted

  17.______hisheadhigh,themanagerwalkedintotheroomtoattendthemeeting______then.

  A.Holding;beingheldB.Held;holdingC.Havingheld;heldD.Held;tobeheld

  18.——Didyouhearher______thispopsongthistimetheotherday?

  ——Yes,andIheardthissong______inEnglish.

  A.sing;singingB.sung;sungC.sung;singingD.singing;sung

  19.Thequestion______nowatthemeetingisnotthequestion______yesterday.

  A.discussed;discussedB.discussing;haddiscussedC.beingdiscussed;discussedD.discussing;discussing

  20.Withthecooking______,Iwenton______somesewing.

  A.done;todoB.beingdone;doingC.tobedone;doingD.tohavedone;doing

  21.Itisnouse______yourpastmistakes.

  A.regrettingB.regretC.toregretD.regretted

  22.Herhusbanddiedin1980andhadnothing______toher,only______herfivechildren.

  A.left;toleaveB.leaving;leavingC.leaving;leftD.left;leaving

  23.Iamverybusy.Ihaveaverydifficultproblem______.

  A.toworkB.toworkoutC.tobeworkedoutD.toworkitout

  24.Iwouldappreciate______backthisaffernoon.

  A.youtocallB.youcallC.yourcallingD.you’recalling

  25.Climbingmountainswas______,soweallfelt______.

  A.tiring;tiredB.tired;tiringC.tiring;tiringD.tired;tired

  26.Isawsomevillagers______onthebenchattheendoftheroom.

  A.seatingB.seatC.seatedD.seatedthemselves

  27.Shewasgladtoseeherchildwell______careof.

  A.takeB.tobetakenC.takenD.taking

  28.Itisoneoftheimportantproblems______tomorrow.

  A.tosolveB.tobesolvedC.solvedD.solving

  29.______mapsproperly,youneedaspecialpen.

  A.DrawnB.DrawingC.TodrawD.Bedrawing

  30.Thereisariver______aroundourschool.

  A.torunB.runC.runningD.toberunning

  31.Howaboutthetwoofus______awalkdownthegarden?

  A.totakeB.takeC.takingD.tobetaken

  32.Iwasfortunatetopickupawallet______onthegroundonthewaybackhome,butunfortunatelyforme,IfoundmycolourTVset.______whenIgothome.

  A.lying;stolenB.laying;stealingC.lay;stolenD.lying;stealing

  33.Whththekind-heartedboy____mewithmywork,I’msureI’llbeabletosparetime___withyourwork.

  A.tohelp;helpyououtB.helping;helpingyouC.helped;tohelpyououtD.tohelp;tohelpyou

  34.Greatlymoveddbyherwords,______.

  A.tearscametohiseyesB.hecouldhardlyholdbackhistears

  C.tearscouldhardlybeheldbackD.hiseyeswerefilledwithtears.

  35.——Ihopethechildrenwon’ttouchthedog.

  ——I’vewarnedthem______.

  A.notB.nottoC.nottouchD.notdo

  36.Iwouldlove______tothepartylastnightbutIhadtoworkextrahourstofinishareport.

  A.togoB.tohavegoneC.goingD.havinggone

  37.When______whyhewalkedinwithoutpermission,hejuststaredatusandsaidnothing.

  A.beenaskedB.askedC.askingD.tobeasked

  38.Themankeptsilentintheroomunless______.

  A.spokentoB.spoketoC.spokenD.tospeak

  39.Hewasoftenlistened______inthenextroom.

  A.singB.sungC.tosingD.totosing

  40.Ratherthan______onacrowdedbus,healwaysprefers______abicycle.

  A.ride;rideB.riding;rideC.ride;torideD.toride;riding

  41.Theboywantedtoridehisbicycleinthestreet,buthismothertoldhim______.

  A.nottoB.nottodoC.notdoitD.donotto

  42.What’stroublingthemis______enoughexperiencedworkers.

  A.thattheyhavetoB.theyhavenotC.theirnothavingD.nottheirhaving

  43.______histelephonenumber,shehadsomedifficultygettingintouchwithBill.

  A.NotknowingB.KnowingnotC.NothavingknownD.Havingnotknow

  44.Bambooisused______housesinsomeplaces.

  A.tobuildB.tobuildingC.tobebuiltD.beingbuilt

  45.Goon______theotherexerciseafteryouhavefinishedthisone.

  A.todoB.doingC.withD.tobedoing

  46.Thedaywelookedforwardto______.

  A.comeB.comingC.hascomeD.havecome

  47.Whomwouldyourather______thework?

  A.tohavetodoB.tohavedoC.havetodoD.havedo

  48.Doyouthinkitanygood______withhimagain?

  A.totalkB.talkingC.totalkingD.havingtalked

  49.Sometimesnewideashavetobetestedmanytimesbefore______.

  A.acceptingfullyB.beingfullyacceptedC.fullyacceptingD.fullybeingaccepted

  50.Thegovernmentforbids______suchbadbooks.

  A.publishedB.topublishC.publishD.publishing

  非谓语动词专练答案

  1―5CBDBD6―10CBAAA11―15CBCCB16―20CADCA

  21―25ADBCA26―30CCBCC31―35CADBB36―40BBADC

  41―45ACAAA46―50CDABD

  四、非谓语动词学习应注意的问题及其练习

  非谓语动词是指分词(包括现在分词和过去分词)、不定式、动名词等三种形式,即:

  doing,done,todo,doing。当然它们有各自不同的变化形式,如:

  现在分词doing:有beingdone(被动式);havingdone(完成式);havingbeendo

  ne(完成被动式)

  不定式todo:有tobedone(被动式);tohavedone(完成式);tobedoing(进行式)

  动名词doing:有havingdone(完成式);beingdone(被动式);

  非谓语动词的特点:三种非谓语动词都具有动词的特征,虽然它们没有人称和数的变化,但是它们都能带自己的状语或有时跟宾语。它们都有各自的特征:分词具有形容词和副词的特征;动名词具有名词的特征;不定式具有名词、形容词和副词的特征。具体来讲:分词在句子中可以做定语、表语、状语或补足语等;动名词在句子中可以做主语、宾语、表语等;不定式在句子中可以做主语、宾语、表语、补足语或状语。

  下面分别对三种非谓语动词进行讲解:

  一.动词不定式

  先看几个例句,判断不定式在句中的成分。

  1.Tolearnaforeignlanguageisdifficult.

  2.Hiswishistobeadriver.

  3.Tomwantedtohaveacupofbeer.

  4.Theteachertoldustodomorningexercises.

  5.Ihavenothingtosay.

  6.Theywenttoseetheiraunt.

  7.It’seasytoseetheiraunt.

  8.Idon’tknowwhattodonext.

  9.Iheardthemmakeanoise.

  说明:1.动词不定式作主语,2.动词不定式作表语,3.动词不定式作宾语,4.动词不定式作宾语补足语,5.动词不定式作定语,6.动词不定式作目的状语,7.动词不定式作真正主语,it代替动词不定式,作形式主语。8.带有连接代词的动词不定式作宾语,9.不带to的动词不定式作宾语补足语。

  掌握动词不定式应注意的几个问题:

  1.“to”是不定式符号还是介词,下列短语中的to都是介词。

  agreetoobjecttocloseto,cometo,leadto,referto,

  equalto,familiarto,pointto,thankto,devoteto,nextto,belongto,beusedto,lookforwardto

  2.带to还是不带to

  Ihavenochoicebuttogivein

  Icannotdoanythingbutgivein

  Isawhimentertheclassroom.

  (但是:Hewasseentoentertheclassroom.)

  3.动词不定式逻辑主语是由for作为标记的。但是有时用of.

  It’snecessaryforyoutostudyhard.

  It’sfoolishofhimtodoit.

  与of连用的形容词有:

  good,kind,nice,wise,clever,foolish,right,wrong,careful,careless,polite,possible

  4.后接不定式作宾语的动词有:

  want,hope,wish,like,begin,try,need,forget,agree,know,promise,teach,refuse,help,arrange,dare,decide,determine,fail,manage,offer,prepare,continue,ask,mean,choose,expectetc.

  需要宾语补足语的动词不能用动词不定式直接做介词的宾语,而要用it做形式宾语。例如:通常不说Wethinktoobeythelawsisimportant.而说Wethinkitimportanttoobeythelaws.

  5.不定式的省略。下列短语中,如果意义明确,常常省略到to。

  wantto,wishto,hopeto,liketo,hateto,planto,tryto,loveto,haveto,o

  ughtto,needto,usedto,beableto

  6.不定式作定语,应注意两种关系:

  1)动宾关系:

  Hehasalotofmeetingtoattend.

  Pleaselendmesomethingtowritewith.

  Heislookingforaroomtolive

  Heislookingforaroomtolivein.

  Hehasnomoneyandnoplace

  tolive(in).

  Ithinkthebestwaytotravel(by)isonfoot.

  Thereisnotimetothink(about).

  2)主谓关系:

  Sheisalwaysthelast(person)tospeakatthemeeting.

  ----I’mgoingtothepostoffice,forIhavealettertopost.(逻辑主语是I)

  -------Thankyou.ButIhavenoletterstobepostednow(逻辑主语不是I)

  7.不定式作状语,可以有以下几种意义:

  1)原因

  Heisluckytogethereontime.

  这种结构中常用的形容词有:

  happy,glad,delighted,pleased,sorry,eager,anxious.lucky,fortunate,proud,angrysurprised,frightened,disappointed,ready,clever,foolish,worthy

  2)目的

  Hecametohelpmewithmymaths.

  3)结果

  Ihurriedtogetthereonlytofindhimout.

  Thebookistoohardfortheboytoread.

  Heisoldenoughtogotoschool.

  8.不定式作补足语

  Isawhimplayinthestreetjustnow.

  能跟不带to的不定式作补足语的动词有:

  see,feel,hear,listento,lookat,watch,let,havemake,observe,notice

  注:当这些词为被动式时,不定式要带to,如:

  Hewasseentoplayinthestreetjustnow.

  二.动名词

  LearningEnglishisverydifficult.

  学英语非常困难。

  Hisjobisdrivingabus.

  他的工作是开车。

  Ienjoydancing.

  我喜欢跳舞。

  Ihavegotusedtolivinginthecountry.

  我已经习惯了住农村。

  Takesomesleepingtablets,andyouwillsoonfallasleep.

  吃点安眠药,你很快就会入睡。

  注意以下几种结构:

  1.There’snotellingwhatwillhappen.

  =It’simpossibletotellwhatwillhappen.

  =Noonecantellwhatwillhappen.

  2.It’snousetalkingwithhim.

  It’snogoodspeakingtothemlikethat.

  3.There’ssomedifficulty(in)doing…

  在此句型中,difficulty可以由以下单词替换:

  trouble,problem,fun,pleasure,agoodtime,ahardtime

  注意以下几个问题:

  1.下列动词后跟不定式与跟动名词作宾语意义有区别,

  forgettodo…忘记要做某事

  forgetdoing…忘记做了某事

  remembertodo…记住要做某事

  rememberdoing…记着做了某事

  meantodo…有意要做某事

  meandoing…意味着做了某事

  regrettodo…对要做的事表示后悔

  regretdoing…对做过去的事后悔

  can’thelptodo…不能帮助做某事

  can’thelpdoing…情不自禁做某事

  trytodo…尽力去做某事

  trydoing试着做某事

  learntodo…学着去做某事

  learndoing…学会做某事

  stoptodo…停下来去做(另一件事)

  stopdoing…停止做某事

  goontodo…接着做(另外一件事)

  goondoing…继续做某事

  usedtodo…过去做某事

  beusedtodoing…习惯做某事

  2.动名词作定语与现在分词作定语意义有区别

  动名词作定语表达n+fordoing的含义

  现在分词作定语表达n+which(who)bedoing的含义

  如:asleepingcar=acarforsleeping

  arunninghorse=ahorsewhichisrunning

  前者是动名词,后者是现在分词

  又如:drinkingwater,walkingstickrunningwater,sleepingboy

  3.动名词的逻辑主语:

  动名词的逻辑主语为代词或名词的所有格形式。

  例如:Hiscomingmadeusveryhappy.

  4.动名词的语态和时态

  5.动名词主动形式表被动的情况:

  needdoing,wantdoing,requiredoing

  例如:Thisroomneedspainting.这个房间需要粉刷。

  6.只能跟动名词作宾语的动词:

  admit,avoid,advise,consider,delay,deny,enjoy,escape,excuse,fancy,finish,complete,forbid,imagine,mind,miss,permit.practise,require,suggest,risk,keep,taketo,lookforwardto,getdownto,feellike,can’thelp,can’tstand,beusedto,insiston,succeedin,setabout,giveup,include,

  三.分词

  1Thestoryisinteresting.I’minterestedinit.

  这个故事有兴趣,我对这个故事感兴趣。

  2.Thisisamovingfilm.

  这是一部动人的电影。

  3.Thesecretaryworkedlateintothenight,preparingalongspeechforthepresident.

  秘书工作到深夜,为主席准备一篇长篇演讲稿。

  4.Givenmoretime,I’lldoitwell.

  如果给我多一点时间,我会做的更好。

  Whenhepassedthebackofthestreet,hesawthethiefstealingsomemoneyfromthebank.

  当他后街时,看到小偷正从银行偷钱。

  应注意的几个问题:

  1.现在分词与过去分词的区别

  DoyouknowthewomantalkingtoTom?

  =DoyouknowthewomanwhoistalkingtoTom?

  Thesoldierwoundedinthewarhasbecomeadoctor.

  =Thesoldierwhowaswoundedinthewarhasbecomeadoctor.

  ChinaisadevelopingcountryandAmericaisadevelopedcountry.

  2.分词作表语

  Thenewssoundsencouraging.

  Theygotveryexcited.

  1)现在分词与过去分词作表语的区别:

  Thenewsisinteresting.

  Heisinterestedinthenews.

  doing作表语,主语与表语是主谓关系;done作表语,主语与表语是动宾关系。

  2)表语与被动式的区别:

  TheblackboardwasbrokenbyXiaoMing.(强调动作)

  Theblackboardisbroken.You’dbetterhaveitrepaired.(强调状态)

  3)常作表语的过去分词:

  amused,injured,covered,known,dressed,lost,broken,gone,delighted,excited,pleased,satisfied,married,worried,surprised,interested,burnt,shut,crowded,wounded,drank,done

  3.现在分词、动名词现在进行时的区别

  Thesituationinourcountryisencouraging.(表语)

  Thesituationinourcountryisencouragingthepeople.(现在进行时)

  Myjobislookingafterthelittlebaby.(动名词)

  能回答how-question的是现在分词,能回答what-question的动名词,即不能回答how-question也不能回答what-question的是现在进行时。

  例如:Howisthesituationinourcountry?Itisencouraging.

  Whatisyourjob?Myjobislookingafterthelittlebaby.

  4.注意的四种结构:

  havesomethingtodo有某事要做

  havesomethingdone使某事被做

  havesomebodydosomething使某人做某事

  havesomethingdoing让某事一直做着

  5.需要跟反身代词作宾语的动词:

  seat,prepare,hide,dress

  如:Iseatedmyselfonthechair.

  Iwasseatedonthechair.

  6.分词做状语与不定式的区别:

  分词做状语表示时间、原因、让步、条件、方式、伴随等;而不定式表示目的和结果。

  Havingfinishedthehomework,Iwenthome.(时间)

  BeingaPartymember,Ishouldworkhard.(原因)

  Givenmoretime,Icandomyworkbetter.(条件)

  Heranoutoftheclassroom,shoutingattheboy.(伴随)

  Togetmoreknowledge,wemustworkharderandharder.(目的)

  Heisoldenoughtojointhearmy.(结果)

  7.分词、动名词和不定式作定语的区别

  arunninghorse现在分词=ahorsethatisrunning

  afallenleaf过去分词=aleafthathasalreadyfallen

  awalkingstick动名词=astickforwalking

  somethingtodo不定式=somethingthatIshoulddo

  8.不定式被动式、分词的被动式和过去分词的区别:

  Ihaveaproblemtobediscussedatthemeeting.(将来)

  ThebuildingbeingbuiltontheriveristheScienceMuseum.(正在进行)

  Thebuildingcompletedthreeyearsagoisnowinbadconditions.(过去)

  9.分词做状语需要注意的一个问题:

  分词与句子主语的逻辑关系

  Seeingfromthehill,thecitylooksbeautiful.(错误)

  Seenfromthehill,thecitylooksbeautiful.(正确)

  Seeing与thecity不是主谓关系;seen与city是动宾关系

  练习

  I.单项选择

  1.Mostofthepeople_____tothepartywerefamousscientists.

  A.invitedB.toinviteC.beinginvitedD.inviting

  2.______manytimes,buthestillcouldn’tunderstandit.

  A.HavingbeingtoldB.ThoughhadbeentoldC.Hewastold

  D.Havingtold

  3.Shereachedthetopofthehillandstopped_____onabigrockbythesideofthepath.

  A.tohaverestedB.testingC.torestD.rest

  4.Thenextmorningshefoundtheman______inbed,dead.

  A.lyingB.lieC.layD.laying

  5.Thepurposeofnewtechnologiesistomakelifeeasier,_______itmoredifficult.

  A.tomakeB.nottomakeC.notmakingD.tonotmake

  6.TheOlympicGames,_____in776B.C.,didnotincludewomenplaysuntil1912.

  A.firstplayingB.tobefirstplayedC.firstplayedD.tobefirstplaying

  7.---Youwerebraveenoughtoraiseobjectionsatthemeeting.

  ----Well,nowIregret____________that.

  A.todoB.tobedoingC.tohavedoneD.havingdone

  8.ThevisitingMinisterexpressedhissatisfactionwithtalks,_______thathehadenjoyedhisstayhere.

  A.havingaddedB.toaddC.addingD.added

  9._______areply,hedecidedtowriteagain.

  A.NotreceivingB.ReceivingnotC.NothavingreceivedD.Havingnotreceived

  10.Thespeakerraisedhisvoice,buthestillcouldn’tmakehimself________.

  A.hearB.tohearC.hearingD.heard

  Robertissaid___abroad,butIdon’tknowwhatcountrybestudiedin.

  tohavestudiedB.tostudyC.tobestudyingD.tohavebeenstudying

  II.用动词的正确形式填空

  1.LittleTomshouldlove________(take)tothetheatrethisevening.

  2.Pauldoesn’thavetobemade_______(learn).Healwaysworkshard.

  3.Thecomputercentre,______(open)lastyear,isverypopularamongthestudentsinthisschool.

  4.Goon_____(do)theotherexerciseafteryouhavefinishedthisone.

  5.Howabouttwoofus______(take)awalkdownthegarden.

  答案:

  I

  1.A2.C3.C4.A5.B6.C7.D8.C9.C10.D

  II

  1.tobetaken;2.tolearn;3.opened;4.todo;5.taking

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标签: 非谓语动词 高二 英语 (责任编辑:101教育小编)

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