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高二英语(人教版)专项复习2--不定式,动名词

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高二英语(人教版)专项复习2--不定式,动名词

一. 本周教学内容:
高二英语(人教版)专项复习2--不定式,动名词

二. 教学目标:
归纳总结非谓语动词中不定式的用法

三. 教学重、难点:
谓语动词和非谓语动词的区别

四. 具体内容:
(一)谓语动词和非谓语动词的区别:
谓语动词在句中可单独作谓语,而非谓语动词不能单独作谓语。
Miss Mary teaches us English.    
玛丽教我们英语。(teaches 动词作谓语)  
Mr.Victor came to our classroom to have a talk with us last week.  
维克托先生上周来到了我们教室和我们谈话。(to have a talk.... 不定式作状语)                      
谓语动词受主语的人称和数的限制,而非谓语动词形式没有这种限制。
Larke likes the pop music.      
拉克喜欢流行音乐。(动词用单数第三人称形式)
Larke has nothing to do today.
拉克今天没什么事要做。(do 用原形)

(二)非谓语动词的特征:
1. 如果非谓语动词是及物动词,后面须跟宾语。
Studying English is my favorite.
学习英语是我的爱好。(studying 后跟宾语)
To help him is my duty.
帮助他是我的责任。(help 后跟宾语)
2. 非谓语动词可以带有自己的状语或逻辑主语。
Working under such a condition is terrible.
在这样的环境下工作太可怕了。(under such a condition 是 working 的状语)  
It’s too difficult for him to master English in such a short time.
他在这么短的时间内掌握英语太难了。(for him 作不定式的逻辑主语)                      
3. 非谓语动词仍有语态和时态的变化。
I am sorry to have kept you waiting long.   
对不起让你久等了。(to have kept...是不定式的完成形式)     
Seen from the mountain, the city looks much more beautiful.  
从山上看,这座城市美丽多了。(seen from...是分词的被动形式)                      
4. 非谓语动词在句中可以当成名词或者形容词来使用。
Our coming made him happy.  
我们的到来使他很高兴。(coming 起名词作用)  
There are two big swimming pools here.  
这儿有两个大型游泳池。(swimming 起形容词作用)

(三)非谓语动词的形式变化:
不定式 主动 被动
一般 to write to be written
进行 to be writing /
完成 to have written to have been written
完成进行 to have been writing /

现在分词 主动 被动
一般 writing being written
完成 having written having been written
过去分词 / written

动名词 主动 被动
一般 writing being written
完成 having written having been written

(四)动词不定式:
动词不定式是由 to + 动词原形构成,在句中起名词,形容词和副词的作用,可以担任除谓语以外的其它任何成分。
1. 动词不定式作主语:  
To master a language is not an easy thing.     
掌握一门语言不是一件容易的事情。
To teach English is my favorite.   
教英语是我的爱好。   
It’s my pleasure to help you.  
很乐意帮助你。
动词不定式作主语时可以放在后面,而用 it 作形式主语放在原主语的位置上。 
It’s very kind of you to have given us much help.
你给了我们那么多的帮助真是太好了。  
It’s necessary to find the witness.  
有必要找到目击者。  
2. 动词不定式作宾语:
某些及物动词可以用动词不定式作宾语,这些动词有decide, begin, help, begin, want, wish, like, forget, learn, ask. 
What I wish is to learn English well.      
我所希望的是把英语学好。 
I like to help others if I can.   
如果有可能的话,我喜欢帮助别人。   
3. 动词不定式作宾语补语 。  
We expect you to be with us.
我们希望你和我们在一起。   
Please ask him to come here quickly.       
请叫他快过来。   
4. 动词不定式作表语:    
What I should do is to finish the task soon.    
我应该做的是赶快完成任务。   
The most urgent thing is to find the boy immediately.  
当务之急是马上去找孩子。 
5. 动词不定式作定语:    
There are many ways to solve the problem.   
有许多方法能解决这个问题。    
I have something important to tell you.    
我有重要的事情要告诉你。 
6. 不定式作状语:
We went to the hospital to see our teacher.    
我们去医院看了我们的老师。 
She is making a test to get a kind of useful medicine from a Tibet flower.    
她在做试验,从一种西藏花中提取某种有用的药物。 

(五)动词不定式的否定形式:
not + to + 动词原形        
The teacher told us not to swim in that river.      
老师告诉我们不要在那条河里游泳。 
It’s unfair not to tell us.     
没告诉我们真是不公平。  

(六)带疑问词的不定式:
疑问词who, what , which , when , where , how, why 可以加在不定式的前面,构成不定式短语,使含义更加具体。    
Where to go is not known yet.
去什么地方还不知道。  
I don’t know when to begin.
我不知道什么时间开始。
Can you tell me where to get the battery ?
你能告诉我哪儿能买到电池吗?
Do you know how to get to the station ? 
你知道怎样去车站吗?

(七)带逻辑主语的不定式:   
动词不定式可以带有自己的逻辑主语,构成方法是: for + 逻辑主语 + 不定式。
注意:逻辑主语用宾格形式, for 本身无实际意义,它只表明后面的主语从逻辑上分析是不定式的主语。
It’s necessary for us to help each other.
我们互相帮忙是必要的。
There are much work for me to finish .
有许多工作要我去完成。

(八)动词不定式的时态:
动词不定式一般时:表示动作和句中谓语动词的动作同时发生或之后发生。
I helped him put the things into the car.
我帮助他把东西放进了汽车。
I want to see you again.
我想再见到你。
Would you like to have a rest ?
你愿意休息一下吗?
动词不定式完成时: 表示动作在句中谓语动词的动作之前发生。
We are sorry to have kept you waiting so long.
对不起,我们让你久等了。
They seem to have known the answers.
他们好像知道了答案。
动词不定式进行时:表示动作同句中谓语动词的动作同时发生,强调动作正在进行。
They seem to be working hard.
他们好像在努力工作。

(九)动词不定式的被动形式:
表示不定式动词同所修饰的名词是被动关系 。
He is the man to be examined.
他是受检查的人。
There are much work to be done.
有好多工作要做。

(十)动名词:
动名词是由动词原形 + ing 构成,同现在分词形式一样,在句中可作主语, 宾语,表语和定语。
1. 动名词作主语:
Talking like that is not polite.
那样谈话不礼貌。
Learning from others is important .
向别人学习很重要。
Putting on more clothes is not so good .
多穿衣服不一定好。
动名词可以象动词不定式一样,用 it 先行词代替, 而把动名词写在后面。
It’s no use waiting here, let’s go home.
在这儿等着也没用,我们回家吧。
It’s very difficult climbing this mountain.
爬这座山很困难。
2. 动名词作表语
The nurse’s job is looking after the patients.
护士的工作是护理病人。
Seeing is believing.
眼见为实。
3. 动名词作宾语
有些动词须用动名词来作宾语,它们是begin, mind, suggest, finish, stop, need, enjoy, miss, keep.
Please stop smoking in the house.
请不要在家里抽烟。
I like reading in the forest.
我喜欢在树林里读书。
Do you mind my opening the windows?
你介意我打开窗户吗?
She is found of collecting stamp.
她喜欢集邮。
4. 动名词作定语
She is studying in the reading room.
她在阅览室学习。
He slept in the sleeping bag.
他在睡袋里睡觉。
动名词的否定形式:not + 动名词
He pretend not knowing it at all.
他假装全然不知。
We considered not doing it now.
我们考虑现在不做这件事 。
5. 动名词的时态:
动名词的一般时:动名词的一般时表示动作与句中谓语动词的动作同时发生,或在谓语动词的动作之后发生。
I enjoy swimming in the big river.
我喜欢在大河里游泳。
动名词的完成时:动名词的完成时表示动作在谓语动词动作之前发生。
She regret not having studied the computer hard.
她后悔没有努力学习计算机。
Do you remember having promised me that?
你记得给我许愿了吗?
6. 动名词的被动形式:
当动名词和它的逻辑主语是被动关系时,用动名词的被动形式来表示。
His being looked down upon made him sick.
他被人冷落使他很伤感。
I can’t really stand being treated like that.
我简直受不了这样的对待。

【典型例题分析】
1. European football is played in 80 countries, _______ it the most popular sport in the world.
A. making B. makes  C. made  D. to make
2. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, ______ it more difficult.
A. not make  B. not to make  C. not making    D. do not make
3. When I got back home I saw a message pinned to the door _______“Sorry to miss you; will call later.”
A. read   B. reads   C. to read   D. reading
4. I’ve worked with children before, so I know what _______ in my new job.
A. expected  B. to be expect ed C. to be expecting  D. expects
5. The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see _________.
A. carry out  B. carrying out  C. carried out  D. to carry out
答案:
1. A. 该题考察非谓语动词。四个选项均为make的不同形式,由句中的逗号及空白前后的逻辑关系考虑,此空应填现在分词表结果。
2. B. 并列不定式做表语,否定式在to之前加not
3. D. 现在分词做后置定语修饰message, 其功能相当于一个定语从句,表示的是与主句表示的时间一致的情况;不定式做定语是未来的动作。
4. B “疑问词+不定式”作 know 的宾语。
5. C. 过去分词短语做后置定语,修饰plan。

【模拟试题】
1.The gas must have been used up, _____ the fire went out of itself.
A. because   B. as    C. for    D. since
2. With his son_____, the old man felt unhappy.
A. to disappoint         B. to be disappointed
C. disappointing        D. being disappointed
3. Glad to see you back. How long _____ in Russia?
A. did you stay          B. have you stayed
C. were you staying      D. have you been staying
4. —Don’t look down upon Bob. He has his own advantages.
    —Oh, yes. _____ others are weak, he is strong.
A. If   B. When   C. Though    D. Where
5. He is always full of _____ as though he never knew tiredness.
A. strength    B. energy    C. force    D. spirit
6. Gorden got married ____ a woman he met when he was working in New York.
A. to   B. /    C. with     D. at
7. The boss _____ 30 dollars from my salary without any good reason.
A. brought down     B. kept back
C. cut off           D. held up
8. — Why are you so late?
— Well, ________, my bike broke down halfway.
A. I say          B. you understand
C. I mean        D. you see
9. The Great Wall is the last place _____ Mr. Smith is going to visit before he leaves Beijing.
A. where    B. which    C. /      D. what
10. —Why not join us in the game?
     —_______.
A. Sure, please do        B. No, you do the same
C. Oh, that’s all right      D. OK, coming
11. Such good use has been _____ his spare time ____ his English has improved a lot.
A. made of; that   B. made of; as   C. made in; that   D. found in; as
12. Is this research center _____ you visited the modern equipment last year?
A. where   B. that    C. the one that   D. the one where
13. ______ part that women play in ____ society is great.
A. The ; /     B. A ; the   C. The; the    D. A; /
14. Swimmers must be very strong in order to build up speed because of the high resistance of the water. Runners, _____ , must struggle against the heavy resistance of the air and ground.
A. generally    B. similarly    C. naturally    D. probably
15. —I really don’t know how to thank you.
   —_______.
A. I’m glad I’m able to           B. Thinking nothing of it
C. I’m glad to have been of help    D. It was the most I could do
16. Before liberation, where floods, earthquakes, fires and many other disasters struck, many people were _____ to leaving their hometowns.
A. made   B. intended     C. reduced    D. forced
17. ______ working tirelessly for the hungry, the homeless and the sick, Mother Terasa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979.
A. Because   B. Owing to   C. Thanks for   D. As
18. ______ when the phone rang.
A. Scarcely I had walked in the door
B. Scarcely had I walked in the door
C. I had walked scarcely in the door
D. I had walked in the door scarcely
19. Mary said it was very important to her that she ____ her work.
A. is liking   B. like    C. likes    D. liked
20. The experts of _____ are ____ to forbid people to smoke in public at present.
A. law; making a law       B. law; passing a law
C. the law; making a law      D. the law; passing a law
21. The boss asked the young man to be brief and _____ as he had little time to spare.
A. at best   B. in place   C. to the point   D. under control
22. —Did you listen to the speech?
     —No, we ______ it. But we had a lot of traffic on our way.
A. must have attended      B. shouldn’t have attended
C. could attend            D. could have attended
23. The meeting was to ______ at 9 but the manger ____ until twenty minutes later.
A. start; didn’t turn up        B. have started; didn’t turn up
C. start; hadn’t turned up      D. be started; hadn’t turned up
24. —Why not get some more physical exercise?
     —________.
A. I feel tired out       
B. I’ve lost my color
C. Could you tell me about any good sports I would like
D. Some sports will do you good
25. To my disappointment, the computer I had ____ was out of order again.
A. repaired      B. repaired it   C. had repaired it   D. had repaired
26. — Which share is meant for me ?
   — You can take _____half. They’re exactly the same.
A. this   B. any   C. each   D. either
27. The situation has become extremely tense. A war ___ break out any time between the two sides.
A. can   B. will   C. could    D. must
28. I didn’t like aunt Lucy, who _____ without warning and bringing us presents.
A. always turned up         B. had always turned up
C. has always turned up      D. was always turning up
29. — John, you’ve never been to the Great Wall since you came to China, I’m afraid.
  — ________.
A. No, I’ve just been there with Mary
B. Yes, never. How about you?
C. No, but how I wish to.
D. Yes, but I’d like to as soon as possible.
30. The nurse treated the naughty boy very kindly, but her patience ____ at last.
A. went down   B. used up   C. got away    D. gave out
31. —I’m not sure what time I’ll arrive, maybe half past seven or a quarter to eight.
—___, I’ll be there as early as possible.
A. Anyhow   B. However   C. Thus    D. Therefore
32. — Did you enjoy yourself at the party?
— Sorry to say I didn’t. It was _____ a meeting than a party.
A. more like    B. rather like   C. less like   D. more or less
33. — Are you satisfied with his work, sir?
      — Well, I’m afraid it couldn’t be ______.
A. any better    B. the best    C. any worse    D. the worst
34. I think it _____ to let farmers have their own land. In that way, they can farm the land by themselves, and food production will be higher.
A. no good   B. makes sense    C. talks sense    D. usefulness
35. If you go to Xi’an, you’ll find the palaces there more splendid than commonly      .
A. supposed    B. suppose    C. to suppose    D. supposing
36. We were just ______ calling you up ____ you come in.
A. about; when          B. on the point of; while
C. on the point of; when   D. on the point of; as
37. — Kennedy Airport, please. I have to be there by 7.
      — _____ but I’ll do my best.
A. No problem      B. OK
C. I can’t promise   D. I can’t do that
38. — What were you doing when I phoned you yesterday evening?
      — I _____ my homework and was starting to take a bath.
A. had just finished         B. was finishing
C. have already finished     D. was going to finish
39. Anyone who has ridden on a railway train knows how rapidly another train flashes by when it is traveling ______.
A. in the same direction             B. in the opposite direction
C. toward the opposite direction      D. against the same direction
40. —I saw Jim at the meeting yesterday.
—Did you? I think he _____ have attended, for he is an expert.
A. needn’t    B. mustn’t    C. shouldn’t    D. couldn’t
41. —I’d rather have some wine, if you don’t mind.
—_______.
A. No, you’d better not       B. Not at all, anything you want
C. Thank you all the same     D. Yes, but not good
42. Historically, _____ main material for making tables has been wood, but _____ metal and stone have also been used.
A. the; /   B. /; /     C. the; the   D. /; the
43. The sun was shining brightly, _____ everything there ____ more beautiful.
A. making; look         B. to make; looked
C. and made; looking     D. and making; be looked
44. — How can I use this washing machine?
     — Well, just refer to the ______.
A. explanations    B. expressions     C. introductions     D. directions
45. Readers can _____ very smoothly without knowing the exact meaning of each word.
A. get along     B. get over      C. get down    D. get through
46. Unfortunately when I arrived she ____, so we only had time for a few words.
A. just left    B. has just left    C. was just leaving    D. had just left
47. Their cheerful voices showed that they were having a ____ discussion.
A. noisy    B. serious   C. friendly    D. lively
48. —_____ I tell the head teacher all that has happened?
     —No, you _____! Mr. Xin would be terribly angry.
A. Will; needn’t     B. would; can 
C. Should; mustn’t    D. Must; don’t have to
49. So far, several ships have been reported missing ____ the coast of Bermuda Island.
A. off     B. along    C. on     D. around
50. Do you enjoy listening to records? I find records are often _____or better than actual performance.
A. as good as   B. as good   C. as well as    D. good as

 

[参考答案]
1—10 CCADB   ABDCD
11—20 ADABC   DBBDA 
21—30 CDBCD  DCDCD 
31—40 ABCBA   CCABA
41—50  BAADA   CCCAA

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