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高二英语(人教版)专项复习3--独立主格、倒装句

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高二英语(人教版)专项复习1--独立主格、倒装句

具体内容
   独立主格
(一)独立主格结构的构成:
名词(代词)+现在分词、过去分词
名词(代词)+形容词
名词(代词)+副词
名词(代词)+不定式
名词(代词)+介词短语构成 
 
(二)独立主格结构的特点:
1. 独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同,它独立存在。
2. 名词或代词与后面的分词,形容词,副词,不定式,介词等是主谓关系。
3. 独立主格结构一般用逗号与主句分开。
举例:
The test finished, we began our holiday. = When the test was finished, we began our holiday.
考试结束了,我们开始放假。
The president assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow. = After the president was assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.
总统被谋杀了,举国上下沉浸在悲哀之中。
Weather permitting, we are going to visit you tomorrow. 
如果天气允许,我们明天去看你。
This done, we went home. 工作完成后,我们才回家。
The meeting gone over, everyone tired to go home earlier. 
会议结束后,每个人都想早点回家。
He came into the room, his ears red with cold.
他回到了房子里,耳朵冻坏了。
He came out of the library, a large book under his arm.
他夹着本厚书,走出了图书馆。
    with的复合结构作独立主格
表伴随时,既可用分词的独立结构,也可用with的复合结构。
with +名词(代词)+现在分词/ 过去分词/ 形容词/ 副词/ 不定式/ 介词短语
举例:
He stood there, his hand raised. = He stood there, with his hand raised.
注意:
(1)独立主格结构使用介词的问题:
当介词是in 时,其前后的两个名词均不加任何成分(如物主代词或冠词),也不用复数。但 with 的复合结构不受此限制
A robber burst into the room, knife in hand. 
(2)当表人体部位的词做逻辑主语时,及物动词用现在分词,不及物动词用过去分词。
He lay there, his teeth set, his hand clenched, his eyes looking straight up.
如果不会判断独立结构作状语的形式,不妨将句子改为条件句,例如本句改为If weather
permits, we’ll go out for a walk. 然后将if 去掉,再将谓语动词改为非谓语动词即可。
 
倒装句
1. 倒装句之全部倒装
全部倒装是只将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前。此结构通常只用与一般现在时和一般过去时。常见的结构有:
(1)here, there, now, then, thus等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用be, come, go, lie, run。
There goes the bell.
Then came the chairman.
Here is your letter.
(2)表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运动的动词。
Out rushed a missile from under the bomber.
Ahead sat an old woman.
注意:上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词,如果主语是人称代词则不能完全倒装。 
Here he comes.  
Away they went.
2. 倒装句之部分倒装
部分倒装是指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态动词倒装至主语之前。如果句中的谓语
没有助动词或情态动词,则需添加助动词do,does或 did,并将其置于主语之前。
句首为否定或半否定的词语,如no, not, never, seldom, little, hardly, at no time, in no way, not until…等。
Never have I seen such a performance.
Nowhere will you find the answer to this question.
Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room.
当not until引出主从复合句,主句倒装,从句不倒装。
注意: 如否定词不在句首不倒装
I have never seen such a performance.
The mother didn’t leave the room until the child fell asleep.
3. 以否定词开头作部分倒装
如:
not only... but also, hardly / scarcely... when, no sooner ... than
Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender.
Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her.
No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her.
注意:只有当not only... but also连接两个分句时,才在第一个分句用倒装结构。如果置于句首的not only... but also仅连接两个并列词语,不可用倒装结构。
Not only you but also I am fond of music .
4.  so , neither , nor作部分倒装
表示“也”、“也不”的句子要部分倒装。   
Tom can speak French. So can Jack.
If you won’t go, neither will I.
注意:当so引出的句子用以对上文内容加以证实或肯定时,不可用倒装结构。意为“的确如此”。
Tom asked me to go to play football and so I did.
—It’s raining hard.   —So it is.
5. only在句首要倒装的情况
Only in this way, can you learn English well.
Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting.
如果句子为主从复合句,则主句倒装,从句不倒装
Only when he is seriously ill, does he ever stay in bed.
6. as, though 引导的倒装句
as / though引导的让步从句必须将表语或状语提前(形容词, 副词, 分词, 实义动词提前)。
注意:
(1)句首名词不能带任何冠词。
(2)句首是实义动词,其他助动词放在主语后。如果实义动词有宾语和状语,随实义动词一起放在主语之前。
Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily.
注意:
让步状语从句中,有 though,although时,后面的主句不能有but,但是 though 和yet可连用。
7. 其他部分倒装
(1)so… that 句型中的so 位于句首时,需倒装。
So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch.
(2)在某些表示祝愿的句型中:
May you all be happy.
(3)在虚拟语气条件句中从句谓语动词有were, had, should等词,可将if 省略,把were, had, should 移到主语之前,采取部分倒装。
Were I you, I would try it again.
 
【典型例题分析】
1. Why can’t I smoke here?
At no time     in the meeting-room.
A. is smoking permitted     B. smoking is permitted
C. smoking is it permitted    D. does smoking permit
答案:A
这是一个倒装问题。当否定词语置于句首以表示强调时,其句中的主谓须用倒装结构。 这些否定词包括no, little, hardly, seldom, never, not only, not until等。本题的正常语序是 Smoking is permitted in the meeting-room at no time.
2. Not until the early years of the 19th century       what heat is.
A. man did know  B. man know  C. didn’t man know  D. did man know
答案:D 
看到not until…的句型,我们知道为一倒装句,答案在C,D 中选一个。
改写为正常语序为,Man did not know what heat is until the early years of the 19th. 现在将
not提前,后面就不能再用否定了,否则意思就变了。
3. No sooner       than it began to rain heavily.
A. the game began       B. has the game begun
C. did the game begin      D. had the game begun
答案:D
以具有否定意义的副词放在句首时,一般采用倒装句(谓语前置)。这类表示否定意义的词有never, seldom, scarcely, little, few, not, hardly, 以及not only…but(also), no sooner…than。
4. —Do you know Jim quarrelled with his brother?
  —I don’t know, _____.
A. nor don’t I care  B. nor do I care  C. I don’t care neither  D. I don’t care also
答案:B
nor为增补意思“也不关心”,因此句子应倒装。A错在用 don’t,再次否定,C neither 用法不对且缺乏连词。 D缺乏连词。
5. Not until I began to work ____ how much time I had wasted. 
A. didn’t I realize  B. did I realize  C. I didn’t realize   D. I realize
答案:B
6. Do you know Tom bought a new car?   I don’t know, ____ .
A. nor don’t I care     B. nor do I care 
C. I don’t care neither    D. I don’t care also
解析:答案为B。句中的nor引出部分倒装结构,表示“也不”。由 so,neither,nor引导的倒装句,表示前一情况的重复出现。其中,so用于肯定句,而 neither,nor 用在否定句中。
7. The murder was brought in, with his hands       behind his back .
A. being tied  B. having tied  C. to be tied  D. tied  
答案:D
with +名词(代词)+分词+介词短语结构。当分词表示伴随状况时,其主语常常用with来引导。由于本句中名词“手”与分词“绑”是被动关系,因此用过去分词,选D。  
 
【模拟试题】
1.    — Let me tell you something about the journalists.
—Don’t you remember _____ me the story yesterday.
A. told      B. telling     C. to tell      D. to have told
2.    I can hardly imagine Peter ____ across the Atlantic Ocean in five days.
A. sail     B. to sail    C. sailing     D. to have sailed
3.   No matter what you do, you should put your _____ into it.
A. mind     B. heart    C. brain      D. thought
4.   The party last night was ____ success. We sang and danced until it came to _____ end of
twelve.
A. a ; an      B. a ; the     C. the ; an     D. / ; an
5. —Excuse me. Can you tell me the way to the No. 1 High School?
 — ______.
A.  I know it. It’s a key school    
B.   Sorry, I’m a stranger here. Please ask the policeman over there
C.   Yes, take a bus
D.    Why do you want to go there
6.     After working in working in the company for 10 years, he returned to the small town
_____he grew up as a child.
A. which    B. where     C. that     D. when
7.    _____ blood if you can and many lives will be saved.
A. Giving    B. Give    C. Given     D. To give
8.   Take it easy. We will do _____ we can _____ your son’s life.
A. all ; to save         B. what ; save
C. all what ; saved      D. that ; saving
9.   Little Tommy was reluctant to tell the schoolmaster _____ he had done the day before.
A. that     B. how    C. where     D. what
10.   Money is often _____ to be the most important thing in our life, but in fact there are many
other things more important than it.
A. considered     B. think      C. taken      D. used
11.   The moon has no light of _____. Its light comes from the sun.
A. it     B. itself    C. it own     D. its own
12.   If the dictionary is yours, ______ can it be?
A. what else      B. who else’s        C. who else     D. which else’s
13.   _____ writer, she is excellent, _____ teacher she is not very good.
A. As a ; and as a            B. As a ; but as a
C. As ; and as               D. As ; but as
14.  After the train crash, the station was a _____ of panic.
A. scene     B. view      C. sign     D. sight
15.   John and Jenny are of the same age, but John is taller ____ a head.
A. than      B. with     C. by    D. over
16.  —I don’t have any change on me. Will you pay the fare for me, please?
—     ______.
A. That’s fine     B. Nothing serious     C. Never mind     D. No problem
17.   Let Harry play with your toys as well, honey. You must learn to _____.
A. support      B. care     C. spare      D. share
18.   The warmth of _____ sweater will of course be determined by the sort of ____ wool used.
A. the ; the     B. the ; /     C. / ; the      D. / ; /
19.   I’ll lend you the money only ____ you can pay ____ on time.
A.  for the condition that; it off
B.   on the condition that; for it
C.   on condition that; it back
D.   for one condition as; it out
20.   —Excuse me, could I use your ruler for a few minutes, please?
—Sure. _____.
A. You use it by yourself            B.  Help yourself
C.   Take it easy                  D. Don’t be polite
21.   As I know, there is _____ car in this neighbourhood.
A. no such     B. no a      C. not such     D. no such a
22.   —What do you think of my English, sir?
     —Well, it’s getting better, but there’s still plenty of ____ for improvement.
A. space      B. area     C. place      D. room
23.   _____ is no chance that they’ll show up at the meeting.
A. That      B. There      C. It       D. This
24.   —Should I take in English or French?
     —Do as you _____. We understand both.
A. think       B. feel      C. care      D. because
25.   —Did you see Tom? He said that he would come back home for supper at 6:30 .
—He seems ____ with Tonny in the lake.
A. to swim   B. to be swimming   C. to have swim    D. swimming
26.   His laziness at work made him _____ with his workmates.
A. disturbed      B. disliked       C. unpopular    D. unwelcome
27.   Once your business becomes international, _____constantly will be part of your life.
A. you fly       B. your flight      C. flight     D. flying
28.   She looks forward every spring to _____ the flower lined garden.
A. visit    B. paying a visit   C. walk in    D. walking in
29.   It was _____ the radio that the young man spent a whole morning in his room.
A. to repair      B. repaired      C. repairing     D. to be repairing
30.   —How did you know the surprising news?
—I happened _____ the event then.
A. to cover     B. to be covering     C. covering     D. to have covered
31.   —I’ll meet you outside the cinema in an hour, OK?
— _______.
A. No, two hours later            B. Yes, that’s a good idea
C. OK, but I can manage          D. No, I don’t think so
32.   —Why are they _____ the forest?
—They are _____ the murderer.
A. searching for; searching        B. searching; searching
C. searching; in search for        D. in searching; searching for
33.   Suddenly the small boy stopped and bent down as if to _____ something.
A. set off      B. pick out     C. pick up    D. set up
34.   —You should have thanked her before you left.
—I meant _____ , but when I was leaving I couldn’t find her anywhere.
A. to do     B. to    C. doing      D. doing so
35.   —Why haven’t you bought any butter?
—I _____ to but I forgot about it.
A. liked      B. wished     C. meant     D. expected
36.   She wants to make friends with ____ shares her interest.
A. whoever     B. any one     C. whomever     D. no matter who
37.  _____ David says sounds right to Helen. That’s why she has made up her mind to leave
with him _____ happens.
A. Whatever; no matter what            B. No matter what; whatever
C. No matter what; no matter what        D. Whatever; however
38.   —I’m sorry I can’t join you in the travel.
  —______.
A. What a shame    B. Never mind   C. What not ask others    D. Not at all
38.  Most animals have little connection with _____ animals of _____different kind unless they
kill them for food.
A. the ; a      B. / ; a       C. the ; the     D. / ; the
40.   Remember not to ____ when you enter the room.
A. look up     B. look round     C. look into    D. look through
  41.   —I’m from Canada .
—Oh really ?   I _____ you _____ from the States.
A. think ; are         B. am thinking ; are being
C. thought ; come     D. thought ; were
42.   E-mail, as well as telephone, _____ an important part in daily communication.
A. is playing     B. have played     C. was playing    D. play
43.   Although I told him many times, he never took any _____ of what I said.
A. notice       B. remark       C. attention     D. sight
44.   I hear that when and where to build the new market ______ yet.
A. is not decided           B. aren’t decided
C. has not decided          D. haven’t been decided
45.   Every minute is made full ______ of ______ our lessons well.
A. to use ; studying       B. use ; studying
C. use ; to study          D. used ; studying
46.   — _______.
  —It’s nothing to worry about. I never liked it anyway.
A.   I lost my walkman this morning
B.   I feel terrible. I’ve got a cold
C.   I feel terrible, but I have left your tape somewhere
D.   I’m sorry, but we don’t have that machine
47.   —We’ll have an important examination tomorrow. I’m really worried.
— ______.
A. Never mind         B. It’s no matter
C. Take it easy         D. That’s all right
48. —When can I come for my pictures?
 —They _____ be ready by 12:30 .
A. can     B. should     C. might      D. need
49.   The fire spread through the hotel quickly, but everyone _____ get out .
A. had to     B. would     C. was able to      D. could
50.   CCTV is exactly like a window on the world ____ you sit by it and fix your attention on
what is going on.
A. if      B. as      C. while      D. unless
 
 试题答案
1—10  BCBABBBADA         11—20 DBBACDDBCB
21—30 ADBCBCDDCB    31—40 BCCBCAAABB
41—50 DABACCCBCA
 
 

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