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七年级英语十大动词精讲:动词时态和语态讲解

来源:101教育网整理 2014-10-16 字体大小: 分享到:

  动词的时态和语态

  (一) 动词是谓语动所表示的动作或情况发生时间的各种形式。英语动词有16种时态,但是常用的只有9种:一般现在时、一般过去时、一般将来时、现在进行时、过去进行时、现在完成时、过去完成时、过去将来时、现在完成进行时。下面分别介绍。

  1、 一般现在时的用法

  1) 表示经常性、习惯性的动作;表示现在的状态、特征和真理。句中常用 often, usually, every day 等时间状语。例如:

  a. He goes to school every day.

  b. He is very happy.

  c.The earth moves around the sun.

  2) 在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中,用一般现在时表示将来。例如:

  a. If you come this afternoon, we’ll have a meeting.

  b. When I graduate, I’ll go to countryside.

  3) 有时这个时态表示按计划、规定要发生的动作(句中都带有时间状语),但限于少数动词,如:begin, come, leave, go ,arrive, start , stop, return, open, close等。例如:

  a. The meeting begins at seven.

  b. The rain starts at nine in the morning.

  4) 表示状态和感觉的动词(be, like, hate, think, remember, find, sound 等)常用一般现在进行时。

  a. I like English very much.

  b. The story sound very interesting.

  5) 书报的标题、小说等情节介绍常用一般现在时。

  2.一般现在时的用法

  1) 表示过去某时间发生的事、存在的状态或过反复发生的动作。

  a. He saw Mr. Wang yesterday.

  b. He worked in a factory in 1986.

  2)表示过去经常发生的动作 , 也可用 “used to “ 和“would + 动词原形”。 I used to smoke. During the vacation I wouldm in the sea.

  注:”used to “ 表示过去常发生而现在不再发生的动作或存在的状态。“would + 动词原形”没有 “现在不再……”含义。另外“to be used to +名词(动名词)”表示“习惯于…..”

  a. I am used to the climate here.

  b. He is used tomming in winter.

  3.一般将来时的用法

  一般将来时表示将来的动作或状态。其表达形式除了 “ will 或 shall + 动词原形 ”表示即将发生的或最近打算进行的事。

  It is going to rain.

  We are going to have a meeting today.

  2)“be to + 动词原形” 表示按计划进行或征求对方意见。

  The boy is to go to school tomorrow.

  Are we to go on with this work?

  3) “be about to + 动词原形” 表示即将发生的动作,意为 be ready to do sth. 后面一般不跟时间状语。 We are about to leave.

  4) go , come , start, move, sail, leave, arrive ,stay 等可用进行时态表示按计划即将发生的动作。I’m leaving for Beijing.

  5) 某些动词(如come, go ,leave, arrive, start, get , stay 等)的一般现在时也可表示将来。

  The meeting starts at five o’clock.

  He gets off at the next stop.



  4.现在进行时的用法

  1) 现在进行时表示现在正在进行的动作,由“to be + 现在分词” 构成。另外, “系动词 + 介词或副词” 也表示进行时的意义。What are you doing? The bridge is under construction.

  2) 表示感觉、愿望和状态的某些动词(如have, be , here, se, like 等 ) 一般不用进行。

  5.过去进行时的用法

  1) 过去进行时过去某一时刻、某一阶段正进行的动作,由 “ was (were) + 现在分词”构成。

  In 1980 he was studying in a university.

  He was reading a novel when I came in.

  6.现在完成时的用法现在完成时由 “have + 过去分词其使用有两种情况:

  1) 现在完成时所表示的动作在说话之前已完成,但对现在有影响。句中没有具体时间状语。

  He has gone to Fuzhou.

  He has been to Fuzhou.

  2) 现在完成时所表示的动作开始于过去,持续到现在,也许还会持续下去常用 for 和since表示一段时间的状语或so far , now, today, this wek (month, year ) 等表示包括现在内的状语。

  He has studied English for 5 years.

  He has studied English since 1985.

  Now I have finished the work..

  注意:表示短暂时间动作的词(如come, go , die, marry, buy 等)的完成时不能与for, since 等 表示一般时间的词连用。

  3)现在完成进行时还可用时间和条件状语从句中,表示将来某时完成的动作。

  I’ll go o your home when I have finished my homework.

  If it has stopped snowing in the morning, we’ll go to the park.

  7.过去完成时的用法

  1) 过去完成时由“had + 过去分词”构成。过去完成时的动作表示过去某一时刻或某一时刻或某一动作之前完成的动作或状态。句中常用by, before, until, when 等词引导的时间状语。

  By the end of last year we had built five new houses.

  I had learnt 5000 words before I entered the university.

  2)过去完成时的动词还可表示过去某一时刻之前发生的动作或状态持续到过去某个时间或持续下去。Before he slept, he had worked for 12 hours.

  8.过去将来时的用法

  过去将来时表示从过去的某个时间看来将要发生的动作或存在的状态。过去将来时由 “should 或 would + 动词原形” 构成。第一人称用should, 其他人称用would.

  They were sure that they would succeed.

  9.现在完成进行时的用法现在完成进行时由 “ have (has)+ been + 现在分词”构成,表示现在以前一直进行的动作。有些动词(work, study, live, teach 等) 用现在完成时与用现在完成时意思差不多。

  I have worked here for three years.

  I have been working here for three years.

  但多数动词在这两种时态表示不同意思

  I have been writing a letter.

  注意:表示短暂动作的动词(finish, marry, get up, come, go 等)不能用这种时态。



  (二) 动词语态

  1. 当句子的主语是动作的执行者时, 谓语的形式叫主动语态。句子的主语是动作承受者时,谓语的形式叫被动作语态。被动语态由助动词be + 过去分词构成,时态通过be 表现出来。

  1) 一般现在时:You are required to do this.

  2) 一般过去时:The story was told by her.

  3) 一般将来时:The problem will be discussed tomorrow.

  4) 现在进行时:The road is being widened.

  5) 过去进行时:The new tool was being made.

  6) 现在完成时:The novel has been read.

  7) 过去完成时:He said that the work had been finished.

  8) 过去将来时:He said that the trees would be planted soon.

  2. 一些特殊的被动结构

  1) 带情态动词的被动结构:The problem must be solved soon.

  2) 带不定式的被动结构:The room is going to be painted.

  The homework needs to be done with care.

  3) 短语动词的被动:

  a.(不及物)动词+介词:若这类短语动词是及物性的,则可用于被动语态中,如:laugh at, look after, talk about, think of 等。若这类短语动词是不及物性的则不可用于被动语态中,如:book up, look down. 等

  b.(及物)动词+副词:bring about, carry out, find out, make out, put away, put off, take up, turn down, turn out, wipe out等

  c. 动词+副词 +介词:do away with, face up to, give into ,look down upon, make up with等

  d. 动词+名词+介词:catch sight of, keep on eye on, make a fool of , pay attention to , put an end to , set fire/light to , take notice of 等

  4) 带复合宾语的动词在改为被动语态时,一般把主动结构中的宾语改为主语,宾语补足语保留在谓语后面。We always keep the classroom clean.

  (比较:The classroom is always kept clean.)

  5)主动形式表示被动意义的词。常见的有:

  a.主动形式,这时动名词同句中的主语有动宾关系。

  The children need looking after.

  The windows wants /requires repairing.

  This point deserves mentioning.

  b.有些及物动词后须加副词 (如:well, easily等), 有些可不加,如:act, clean, cut, draw, lock, open, play, read, sell, shut, strike, wash, write 等。

  The cloth washes/ sells well.

  The door won’t shut. The play won’t act.

  c. 形容词worth后直接加动名词时,如:The book is worth reading twice.

  某些作表语的形容词后,用不定式主动形式表示被动意义。

  The fish is not fit to eat.

  d. 某些感官动词(如:feel, look, prove, smell , sound, taste, wear等) 与形容词连用时:The water feels very cold.

  The dish tastes delicious.

  6) 以下动词构成的句子不能改为被动句:

  a. 动词leave, enter, reach 等的宾语是表示处所、地点(国家、团体,组织、军队)等。

  b. 表示状态的动词,如:become, benefit, cost, contain, equal, fit, fail, have, lack, last, mean, suit, look like等。



  c. 下列不及物动词及短语:appear, belong to , break out, die, happen, lie, occur, rise, take place, agree with, belong to, consist of , have on, keep up with 及一些固定词组,如 keep words, lose heart, make a face等。

  d. 宾语是反身代词,相互代词,同源代词,不定式,动名词,抽象名词等。

  7)汉语有一类句子不出现主语,在英语中一般可用被动结构表示。如:

  据说…… 希望……

  据推测说… 必须承认……

  必须指出… 众所周知……

  有人会说….. 大家认为…..

  有人相信……

  there be 小结

  1. 基本结构 :There be +主语 + 地点 /时间状语。如: There is a computer in the room. 房间里有一台电脑。 There are two TV plays every evening. 每晚有两场电视剧。

  2. 主谓一致: 要采取就近一致原则,和* 近be的主语一致。如: There is a pen, two rulers in the box. 盒子里有一只钢笔,两把尺子。There are two boys and a teacher at the school gate. 门口有两个男孩,一个老师。

  3. 主语后的动词形式:在there be 句型中,主语与动词是主动关系时用现在分词;是被动关系时用过去分词。如: There is a purse lying on the ground. 地上有一个钱包。There are five minutes left now. 现在还有5分钟。

  4. 反意疑问句。反意疑问句应与there be对应,而不是依据主语。如:There is a radio on the table, isn"t there? 桌子上有一台收音机,是吧? There are more than fifty classes in your school, aren"t there? 你们班有50多名学生,是吧?

  5. there be 与have的替换:there be表示所属时可与have替换。 There is nothing but a book in my bag. =I have nothing but a book in my bag. 包里只有一本书。

  6. there be后接不定式时常用主动形式表示被动意义。如:There is a lot of work to do. 有许多工作要做。注意:当该句型主语是something, anything, nothing等不定代词时,后面的不定式用主动形式或被动形式,意义各不同。 There is nothing to do. 没有事可做。 There is nothing to be done. 没有办法(束手无策)。

  7. 与其它词连用,构成复合谓语。如:There may be a rain this afternoon. 今天下午可能有雨。There used to be a cinema here before the war. 战争之前,这儿有一家电影院。

  8. 变体 there be结构中的be有时可用live, stand, remain等代替。如:Once there lived a king who cared more about new clothes than anything else. 从前有位国王喜欢新服胜过别的任何东西。

  9. 习惯用语:There is no good /use (in) doing sth. 做某事没有好处/用处;There is not a moment to lose. 一刻也不能耽误。例如:There is no good making friends with him. 和他交朋友没有什么好处。 He is very ill. Send him to hospital. There"s not a moment to lose. 他病得厉害,把他送到医院去,一刻也不能耽误。

标签: 英语 动名词 (责任编辑: 101教育小编 )
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