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七年级英语语法:用法小结及典型错误例析

来源:101教育网整理 2014-10-16 字体大小: 分享到:

  一、过去将来时的含义

  过去将来时表示在过去某个时间看来将要发生的动作或存在的状态。过去将来时常用于宾语从句和间接引语中。例如:

  I didn’t know if he would come.

  我不知道他是否会来。

  They never knew that population would become a big problem.

  他们从来都不知道人口问题将会成为一个大问题。

  She didn’t tell me where she would go.

  她没有告诉我她要去哪儿。

  Betty said she would visit the Great Wall next Saturday.

  贝蒂说下周六她要去参观长城。

  二、过去将来时的表达法

  (一)“would+动词原形”。常表示按计划或安排即将发生的事。例如

  He said he would come to see me.

  他说他要来看我。

  He told me he would go to Beijing.

  他告诉我他将去北京。

  (二)“was/ were+going to+动词原形”。常可用来表示按计划或安排即将发生的事。例如:

  She said she was going to start off at once.

  她说她将立即出发。

  I was told that he was going to return home.

  有人告诉我他准备回家。

  此结构还可表示根据当时情况判断有可能但不一定会发生某事。例如:

  It seemed as if it was going to rain.

  看来好像要下雨。

  (三)come, go, leave, arrive, start等动词可用过去进行时代替过去将来时。例如:

  He said the train was leaving at six the next morning.

  他说火车将于第二天早晨六点离开。

  She told me she was coming to see me.

  她告诉我她要来看我。



  (四)条件状语从句和时间状语从句中须用一般过去时代替过去将来时。例如:

  I didn’t know when she would come, but when she came I would let you know.

  我不知道她什么时候来,但她来了我会告诉你。

  The teacher said that it would be very difficult to make progress if I didn’t work hard.

  老师说,如果我不努力学习的话,就很难取得进步。

  过去将来时典型错误例析

  1. 我们不知道他是否要在会上发言。

  误:We didn’t know whether he is going to speak at the meeting.

  正:We didn’t know whether he was going to speak at the meeting.

  析:该句主句为过去时,且宾语从句表示从过去某个时间看来将要发生的动作,所以从句要用过去将来时态。

  2. 老师问汤姆长大后准备干什么。

  误:The teacher asked Tom what he was going to be when he would grow up.

  正:The teacher asked Tom what he was going to be when he grew up.

  析:在时间状语从句中,常用一般过去时表示在过去看来将要发生的动作。

  3. 他们说如果下星期天不下雨他们就去农场。

  误:They said that they were going to the farm if it would not rain the next Sunday.

  正:They said that they were going to the farm if it didn’t rain the next Sunday.

  析:在条件状语从句中,也常用一般过去时表示在过去看来将要发生的动作。

  4. 王林打电话告诉她妈妈,她要买一些书。

  误:Wang Lin rang up to tell her mother that she should buy some books.

  正:Wang Lin rang up to tell her mother that she would buy some books.

  析:过去将来时可以由“助动词should/would+动词原形”构成,但should一般只用于第一人称。而would可用于各种人称。

  5. 上次我见到你时,你正打算开始乘火车去西藏。

  误:Last time I saw you, you had started to go to Tibet by train.

  正:Last time I saw you, you were going to start to go to Tibet by train.

  析:last time是一般过去时或过去将来时的显著标志。

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