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Module 3 Journey to space基础知识及练习题

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  Module 3 Journey to space
  Unit 1 Has it arrived yet?
  What are you up to? 你在干什么呢?
  be up to...表示“从事于……,忙于……”,后接名词、代词或动 词-ing形式等。
  All of us are up to good deeds. 我们所有人都在做有益的事情。
  What are you up to with all the lights on? 你开着所有的灯在干什么?
  be up to sb.意为“由某人决定”。
  An Indian or a Chinese meal? It is up to you.
  吃印度菜还是中国菜?这由你来决定。
  I’ve just made a model spaceship for our school project.
  我刚刚为我们的学校计划而做了一个宇宙飞船模型。
  just位于实义动词与助动词之间,意为“刚才,刚刚”,多用于完 成时态中。
  I have just finished my homework.我刚刚做完我的家庭作业。
  1) just也可用于一般过去时中,表疋“刚才”,与just now 同义,但是与just在句子中的位置不同,just now通常用于句末。
  The bell just rang. =The bell rang just now.铃刚响过。
  2) just也可意为“恰恰,正好”,不用于否定句中,相当于exactly。
  That’s just what he wanted.那正是他想要的。
  3) just还可意为“仅仅,只是”,相当于only。
  He is just a child.他仅仅是一个孩子。
  ......because I’m not sure how to make it. .....因为我不确定该怎么做。
  be sure表示“确信”,“be sure+宾语从句”表示主句主语对宾语 从句中涉及的事物所作出的判断,意为“确信某事一定 会……”。
  I’m not sure whether I’ve met him before.
  我不能确定以前是否见到过他。
  We are sure that he will make great progress this term.
  我们确信他这学期一定会取得巨大进步。
  1) be sure to do sth.意为“一定做某事”,表示说话人对 句子主语作出的判断,认为句子主语“必定会”、“必然会”、“准 会”怎么样。
  He is sure to know about that.
  他准会知道那件事。
  2)be sure to do用在祈使句中,不是表示判断,而是表示对对 方的要求,意为“务必要”,“一定要”。
  Be sure to send my regards to your mother.
  务必代我问候你母亲。
  —Has it arrived yet?已经到了吗?
  —Yes, it has arrived already.是的,已经到了。
  yet意为“还;尚”,用于表达某事在某一时间内尚未发生,但未 来也许会发生。在现在完成时中,通常用在否定句和疑问句中。
  Have you received his letter yet?
  你已经收到他的来信了吗?
  They haven’t finished their math homework yet.
  他们还没有完成数学作业。
  already意为“已经”,常用于肯定句中,可以用在助动词之后, 实义动词之前,也可以用在句末。
  She has arrived in Nanjing already.
  她已经到了南京。
  All the volunteers have already got to the gate of the park.所有
  的志愿者都已经到了公园门口。
  already也可用于否定句,表示“意外,惊喜”。
  He hasn’t seen the film already.
  他竟然没有看过那部电影。
  巧记 yet 与 already:
  完成时里yet和already,
  意思、用法不一致, yet疑问、否定有关系, already用于肯定莫迟疑。
  So have they discovered life on Mars? 那么他们在火星上发现生命了吗?
  discover是及物动词,表示“发现,了解到”,指“发现或找到”某种 自然界本来已存在,但以前未被人类发现或认识的事物,如发现元 素、电、煤、石油、铁等矿藏以及新星、星系或科学真理等。
  I discovered an unopened letter in the drawer.
  我在抽屉里发现了一封未拆的信。
  Lots of scientists are working hard in order to send astronauts to Mars one day. 为了将来某天把宇航员送上火星,许多科学家 正在努力工作。
  in order to意为“为了,以便”,后接动词原形,表示目的,位于句 首或句中。
  We started early in order to arrive before dark.
  我们很早出发以便能在天黑前到达。
  In order to hold a dance,they pushed aside all chairs in the hall.
  为了举行舞会,他们把大厅里所有的椅子全推到了一边。
  1)含有 in order to的句子可与so that引导的目的状语 从句互换。
  He got up early in order to get there in time.
  =He got up early so that he could get there in time.
  为了及时赶到那里,他很早就起床了。
  2)in order that后接句子,引导目的状语从句,意为“以便;以至于”。
  In order that I could hear clearly,he spoke loudly again.为了让我听清楚,他又大声地说了一遍。
  Unit 2 We have not found life on any other planets yet.
  ......there has been life on earth for hundreds of millions of years.……地球上存在生命已经有成千上万年了。
  There be句型的现在完成时
  There has been...是There be句型的现在完成时形式。若be动 词后面的名词是复数,则用There have been...。
  There have been many people on the playground by now. 到目前为止操场上已经有许多人了。
  There be句型现在完成时的否定句形式为:There haven’t/hasn’t been ...; —"般疑冋句形式为:Have/Has there been...?
  Have there been visitors to the earth from other planets? 已经有来自其他行星的游客来拜访地球了吗?
  There hasn’t been any milk yet. 已经没有牛奶了。
  hundreds of millions of 成千上万的
  hundreds of意为“成百上千的” ;millions of意为“成千上万的”; 放在一起时仍然指不确定数“成千上万的”。
  Millions of people visit the Great Wall every year.每年都有成千上万的人参观长城。
  (1)与之用法相同的短语还有thousands of“数以千计 的”,billions of“数以亿计的”。
  (2)当 hundred(百),thousand(千),million(百万),billion(十亿) 和具体数字连用时,hundred,thousand,million,billion等不变复 数,不加介词of;若没有具体数字时,必须变复数,加介词of。
  He spent three hundred dollars on the books.
  他花了三百美元买这些书。
  There is a big sale in the shop. Thousands of people are waiting to buy cheap things.这个商店大减价。成千上万的人等着买便宜货。
  【即学即练】
  一、单项选择。
  1. Taiyuan is becoming a tourist city. B people come here during the holiday every year.
  A. Thousand of B. Thousands of C. Five thousands of
  解析:句意为:“太原正在变成一个旅游城市。成千上万 的人每年在假期期间来这里。” A项本身错误,应是 Thousands of; C项中thousand不应加复数,也不需要介词 of;B项意为“成千上万的”。故选B。
  2. Six B students in our school are from the countryside.
  A. hundreds B. hundred C. hundreds of
  解析:句中有具体的数词six,所以hundred不用复数,选B。
  3. Ten teachers and students plant trees every year.
  A. thousands; million of B. thousand; millions of C. thousands of; millions of
  二、根据汉语意思完成句子。
  1. 以前这个超市从未有过这么多人。
  2. 到目前为止,已经有到这个博物馆参观的游客了吗?
  However, we have not found life on any other planets yet. 然而,我们还没在任何其他的星球上发现生命。
  have not found是现在完成时的否定形式。现在完成时的否定 句形式为:have/has + not +动词的过去分词,其中have/has和 not 可以缩略为 haven’t/hasn’t。
  We haven’t been to Shanghai.我们没有去过上海。
  有时我们也可在have/has之后加 never构成否定句。
  He has never heard of the news before.
  他以前从未听说过这个消息
  None of them has an environment like that of the earth, 它们当中没有一个有像地球上那样的环境,……none 没有一个
  none作代词,意为“没有一个,一个也没有;没有一人”,是表示 否定的不定代词,既可指人也可指物。none of作主语时,如指 代不可数名词,谓语动词要用单数形式;指代可数名词,谓语动 词用单、复数均可。
  None of the money belongs to me. 这些钱没有属于我的。
  None of them has/have seen me before. 当中没人以前见过我。
  no one/nobody常用来指人,作主语时谓语动词要用单 数形式;nothing常用来指物,作主语时谓语动词也要用单数形式。但它们都不可以和of短语连用。
  No one likes a person with bad manners.
  没人喜欢没有礼貌的人。
  Nothing is difficult in the world if you put your heart into it.
  世上无难事,只要肯攀登。
  【即学即练】
  1. of us has read the story. So we know nothing about it.
  A. None B. Nothing C. Both D. All
  解析:本题考查代词。由代词us可知,本题的主语是人, 可排除B; 由So we know nothing about it. “因此我们对此 事一无所知”可知选A。
  2. I’m thirsty. I want to drink some water,but there was in the bottle.
  A. nothing B. none C. not D. no
  解析:本题考查代词。句意为:“我口渴了。我想喝水,但 是瓶子里没有。”这里的代词是指“物”的,所以选A。
  However, no spaceship has travelled far enough to reach near other stars in our Galaxy. 但是,还没有宇宙飞船飞得足够远可以到达银河系中较近的其他星球。
  本句中far enough to reach...意为“足够远可以到达 ”。“…enough to do sth.”意为“足够 可以做某事”,其中enough是副词,用来修饰形容词或副词,但形容词或副词必须放在 enough之前,enough之后加动词不定式(to do sth.),意为“足够……可以做某事”。
  He is old enough to go to school.他足够大可以上学了。
  “so +形容词/副词+ that从句”意为“如此……以至于 ”;“too +形容词/副词+to do sth.”意为“太 而不能 ”,以上两个句型可以与...enough to do sth.互相转换。
  The box is too heavy for me to carry.
  这个箱子对我来说太重了搬不动。
  The box is so heavy that I can’t carry it.
  这个箱子如此的重以至于我搬不动它。
  The box is not light enough for me to carry.
  这个箱子对我来说不够轻,我搬不动。
  【即学即练】
  一、单项选择。
  1. He is to lift the heavy bag.
  A. too weak B. weak too
  C. weak enough D. enough weak
  解析:本题考查too.. .to.…结构和enough to…结构的区别。 从语法上判断,B和D项错误;从句意上判断选A。句意 为:“他太弱小了拎不动这个重包。”
  2. He wasn’t with his knife. He cut himself.
  A. careful enough B. enough careful
  C. carefully enough D. enough carefully
  解析:本题考查enough的用法。enough修饰形容词或副 词时,要放在其后,所以排除B和D; 根据句中的wasn’t可 知,其后接形容词作表语,所以本题选A。
  二、同义句转换。
  1. His brother is too excited to fall asleep.
  2. He is strong enough to climb the mountain.
  With so many stars in the universe, are we alone, or is there life out there in space? 宇宙中有这么多的星星,我们是唯一的吗?抑或太空中还有其他生命呢?
  介词短语表伴随 with so many stars in the universe是介词短语,在句中作状语,表示伴随的情况。
  The boy ran in, with an apple in his hand.
  男孩手里拿着苹果,跑了进来。
  He waved at us with a smile on his face.
  他面带微笑向我们招手。
  —What does your English teacher look like?
  —She’s tall and thin long hair.
  A. have B. has C. there is D. with
  解析: with “带着 ;有…的”,表示特征。句意为“你们英语老师长得什么样子?”“她留着长发,高高的,痩痩的”。
  Why has no one communicated with us? 为什么没有人和我们联系?
  communicate是不及物动词,意为“联系;交流”,跟宾语时,要加介词with。communicate with sb.意为“与某人交流”。
  He had no way to communicate with his brother.
  他没有办法和他的弟弟交流。
  Unit 3 Language in use
  【热身训练】
  英汉互译
  1. any other planets
  2. arrive on Mars
  3. send back photos
  4. 在月球上行走
  5. (将来的)某一天
  6. 等待消息
  I’ve just made a model spaceship.
  我刚刚制作了一个宇宙飞船模型。
  Astronauts have already been to the moon.
  宇航员们已经到过月球了。
  Has it arrived yet? 它已经到了吗?
  already 和 yet 的区别
  1) already意思是“已经”,通常用于陈述句中(放在have和has的后面),也可用于疑问句,表示期望得到肯定的回答或表 示惊异,此时already常放在句末。
  I have already finished my homework.
  我已经做完家庭作业了。
  Has she found her bike already? 她已经找到自行车了?
  2) yet可用于否定句,此时意为“还”,也可以用于疑问句,意 为“已经”(放在have和has的后面也可放在句末)。
  I haven’t found my ruler yet.我还没有找到我的直尺。
  Have you found your ruler yet? 你已经找到尺子了吗?
  3) just只用于陈述句,意思是“刚才”(放在have和has的后面)。
  He has just had his meal. 他刚吃过饭。
  【即学即练】
  单项选择
  1. We haven’t finished our homework .
  A. already B. ever C. yet D. never
  解析: 本题考查副词。由于题干是否定句,所以用yet。
  2. —Have you learned English?
  —Yes, I’ve learned a lot.
  A. never; ever B. ever; never
  C. ever; already D. already; ever
  解析: 问句中用ever意为“曾经”;答语是肯定句,用 already,所以本题选C。
  3. —Have you finished your homework ?
  —Yes,I’ve done that.
  A. yet; already B. already; yet
  C. ever; never D. still; just
  解析: yet用在疑问句句末,already用在肯定句句中。
  4. John’s father borrowed some pictures.
  A. have already B. has just
  C. have ever D. have never
  解析:句意为:“约翰的爸爸刚借了 一些画。”根据主语为 第三人称单数可知,应选B。
  现在完成时的用法 II
  一、现在完成时的用法
  表示过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,常 与just,already和yet等连用。already,just和yet表示“到现在 为止动作或状态已经、刚刚或还没有发生”。
  He has already got her help.他已经得到了她的帮助。
  He has just seen the film.他刚刚看了这场电影。
  誗He hasn’t come back yet.他还没有回来。
  二、现在完成时与一般过去时的用法比较
  (1) 现在完成时表示过去的动作一直延续到现在甚至会继续 下去或表示过去的动作对现在造成的影响。而一般过去时表 示动作发生的时间在过去。
  The plane has arrived.飞机已经到达了。
  The plane arrived a quarter ago.飞机是一^刻钟以前到达的。
  (2) when常与一般过去时连用,how long常与现在完成时连用。
  When did you come to Beijing? 你什么时候来北京的?
  How long have you been in Beijing? 你待在北京多少年了?
  【即学即练】
  (2013 ?江西中考)一Have you had your breakfast yet?
  —Yes,Mom it for me.
  A. was cooking B. is cooking C. will cook D. cooked
  解析: 本题考查动词的时态。结合本题场景可知,“我”吃 过早饭了,所以妈妈是在过去的某个时刻为“我”做的早 饭,故要用一般过去时。
  ( 2013 ?广东广州中考)—You look very nice in your new dress today.
  —Oh,really? I B it when it was on sale.
  A. buy B. bought C. have bought D. will buy
  解析: 本题考查时态。答语后句句意为:“当它打折销售时我买的。”由从句为一般过去时可知主句的动作也应发生在过去,故用一般过去时。

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