Unit 2 Working the land
Warming Up, Pre-reading, Reading
Can hard work be replaced by machines in agriculture? Yes, man is trying out(试验)automatic farming. It is fun to watch a machine picking tomatoes. The strange machine sails like a ship across a sea of plants. In its front is a hole. As the machine moves forward, tomato plants are pulled into the hole. The tomatoes are gathered while the rest of the plants are thrown back onto the fields. Twelve workers sit on top of the machine. They rapidly pick out the bad fruit from the tomatoes. A red stream of ripe tomatoes is being sent into a cart that is pulled alongside the machine. One driver and twelve workers can pick in an hour ten tons of a new kind of tomato. Without the invention, it would take 60 men to do the job. Not all plants cooperate(合作)well with the farming machines. Take lettuce(莴苣)for example, seeds plants in the same field in the same time ripe at different times. The only way to tell a ripe head of lettuce is to look at it and feel it. And now there is a machine even to do that! There is a special machine to test lettuce. When it moves over one that feels right, it sends a signal back to the picking machine which goes behind. The cutting and picking is done satisfactorily by this set of machines.
1.The text is mainly about________.
A. farming B. old agriculture C. modern agriculture D.automatic farming
2.Which of the following statements is Not True according to the text?
A. Not all the plants cooperated well with the farming machines.
B.Some plants did not cooperate well with the farming machines.
C. Machines could pick tomatoes.
D. Cutting and picking lettuce can be done by a machine.
3.It used to take_______men to pick ten tons of a new kind of tomato.
A. twelve B. thirteen C. thirty D. sixty
4.Where are the tomato plants thrown ?
A. Into the hole in the front of the machine. B. Into the cart.
C .Back onto the fields. D. Into the basketball.
5.In agriculture hard work can be replaced by_______.
A inventions. B. machines C. workers D. drivers
Learning about Language
Europe is now the biggest market for organic food in the world, having grown by 25 percent a year over the past 10 years. Denmark’s agriculture minister is herself an organic farmer. The UK market for organic food grew by 55 percent in 2000, while the food market as a whole grew by only one percent. Yet only seven percent of British shoppers account for nearly 60 percent of organic sales. However popular the idea of organic farming may be, it is still an interest for only a few people.
So what makes the idea of organic farming popular? Organic farming means farming with natural materials, rather than with man-made fertilizers or pesticides(杀虫剂). Organic farmers rely on many methods — such as crop rotation (农作物的轮作) and the use of resistant(有抵抗力的) varieties, because they are necessary for organic farmers to compensate for the shortage of man-made chemicals.
Organic farming is often supposed to be safer than traditional farming for the environment. Yet after a long research on organic farming worldwide for a number of years, science continues to be against this opinion. The House of Commons committee on agriculture publicized that, even with complete research work, it would fail to find any scientific evidence to prove “that any of claims (宣称) made for organic farming is always true”.
However, the talk about the benefits of organic farming is going on. This is partly because many people depend on their individual farm, the soil, the weather, and so on.
1. The first paragraph mainly tells us _____.
A. organic farming has been performed only in Europe over the past 10 years
B. governments of European countries have cared less about organic farming
C. organic farming is far from being as popular as expected
D. European countries need organic food more than the other countries in the world
2. The underlined words “compensate for” in the second paragraph probably mean “________”.
A. argue for B. care for C. struggle for D. pay for
3. What can we know about organic farming?
A. It refers to farming with natural materials, instead
of chemical fertilizers.
B. It refers to farming with chemical fertilizers rather than natural fertilizers.
C. It refers to farming with soil rather than any other thing.
D. It refers to growing crops with man-made fertilizers and pesticides.
4. According to the third paragraph, _____.
A. organic farming is safer than traditional farming for the environment
B. the idea that organic farming is safer has not been proven by science
C. organic farming is accepted by the UK’s House of Commons committee
D. organic farming is preferred to traditional farming
5. Which of the following is TRUE, according to the passage?
A. The UK’s agriculture minister is an organic farmer.
B. Organic farming is popular with young people.
C. Farmers make use of many different kinds of methods to improve the organic sales system.
D. Ninety-three percent of British shoppers don’t buy organic products.
As people slowly learn to cure diseases, control floods, prevent hunger, and stop wars, fewer people die every year. As a result, the population of the world is becoming larger. In 1925 there were about 2 billion people in the world; today there are over 6 billion.
When the number rises, extra mouths must be fed. New lands must be brought under development, or land already farmed must be made to produce more crops. In some areas the land is so over-developed that it will be difficult to make it provide more crops. In some areas the population is so large that the land is divided into too tiny units to make improvement possible with farming methods. If a large part of this farming population went into industrial work, the land might be farmed much more productively (多产地) with modern methods.
There is now a race for science, technology, and industry to keep the output of food rising faster than the number of people to be fed. New types of crops, which will grow well in bad weather, are being developed, so there are now farms beyond the Arctic Circle in Siberia and North America. Irrigation (灌溉) and dry-farming methods bring poor lands under the plough. Dams(大坝) hold back the waters of great rivers, which can provide water for the fields in all seasons and provide electric power for new industries. Industrial chemistry provides fertilizer to suit different soils. Every year, some new methods are made to increase or to protect the food of the world.
1. The author says that the world population is increasing because _____.
A. there are many rich valleys and large fields
B. farmers are producing more crops than before
C. people are living longer due to better living conditions
D. new lands are being made into farmlands
2. The author says that in areas with large populations, land might be more productively farmed if _____.
A. the land was divided into smaller pieces
B. people moved into the countryside
C. industrial methods were used in farming
D. the units of land were much larger
3. We are told that there are now farms beyond the Arctic Circle. This has been made possible by _____.
A. growing new types of crops B. irrigation and dry-farming means
C. providing fertilizers D. destroying pests and diseases
4. Why is the land divided into tiny units in some areas?
A. There are too many people living there.
B. It saves more natural resources there.
C. It prevents crops from serious diseases there.
D. Farmers can grow various kinds of crops there.
5. Why do some people use dams to hold back waters from great rivers?
A. To develop a new kind of dry-farming methods.
B. To prevent crops from floods.
C. To provide water and electricity in all seasons.
D. To water poor lands in bad weather.
Planting is no easy thing. Farmers have to struggle in their fields all year round to sow(播种) the seeds, apply fertilizer, protect the products and worry about bad weather. However, even with all this work, they may not get a good harvest. One of the reasons is that fields are often treated in the same way, which is actually against the law of nature. The same plant, growing in two different fields, will face very different growing conditions, for example, in the number of weeds and pests. Thus, if farming can be done according to different conditions, the crop output is certain to increase.
To solve this problem, a new idea called “precision (精确) farming” has recently been attracting more and more farmers’ attention. “Precision farming” means gathering information electronically from a field and then putting the information into a computer. After that, the computer will deal with the information, and control the equipment in the field. Precision farming must be based on the GPS, since messages from several satellites should first make sure of the agricultural condition. In this way, a lot of farming work can be finished electronically, such as taking soil samples (样本), measurement of field areas, and applying fertilizer.
Moreover, as a lot of unnecessary fertilizer can be saved with this method, the new technology is very good for environmental protection. Farmers are certain to save a lot of money and lead a much easier life!
6. According to the passage, farmers may not get a good harvest because _____________.
A. the fields are often treated in the same way
B. too many different plants grow in one field
C. different weeds and pests live in one field
D. different fields have different conditions
7. “Precision farming” is a new concept ___________.
A. invented by farmers and used in agriculture
B. that information is dealt with by scientists
C. which is based on global positioning system
D. in which equipment is controlled by men working in the field
8. Many farming tasks can be finished electronically, EXCEPT__________.
A. taking soil samples B. measurement of field areas
C. applying fertilizer D. producing unnecessary fertilizer
9.According to the new technology, which of the following is wrong?
A. Necessary fertilizer can be saved.
B. A lot of money can be saved.
C. It is very good for environmental protection.
D. Farmers are certain to lead a much easier life!
10. When translated into Chinese, GPS is__________.
假设你是郑州市第五中学的学生陈楠，你学校本周的课外小组活动是英文广告设计比赛，你的参赛广告是为某绿色食品生产商宣传其产品 — 有机苹果。内容设计如下：
Ladies and gentlemen,
It’s time to try new things.
Thank you very much.