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高二英语语法复习 人教版

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高二英语语法复习 人教版 一. 本周教育内容: 语法复习: 非谓语动词做名词的定语 There be句型中的非谓语动词的使用 With+名词+补足语 二. 知识总结与归纳: (一)非谓语动词(to do; doing; done)做名词的定语 修饰一个名词除了后面用定语从句以外,还可以用doing短语,done短语,being done短语,to be done短语修饰。其结构和意思如下: 1. 被修饰名词+doing短语:正在做……的人/正在发生的事。 2. 被修饰名词+ done短语:被……的人/事 3. 被修饰名词+being done短语:正在被……的人/事 4. 被修饰名词+ to be done短语:将要被……的人/事 请看下面几个定语从句以及句中定语从句的简化表达: 1. The man who is sitting on the platform is a professor from Wuhan University. The man sitting on the platform is a professor from Wuhan University. 2. The letter that was mailed last night will reach him tomorrow. The letter mailed last night will reach him tomorrow. 3. The question that is being discussed is very important. The question being discussed is very important. 4. You are welcome to a party which is to be given in our class at 7:45. You are welcome to a party to be given in our class at 7:45. 总结:以上做定语的那些短语就是英语语法中所说的分词,不定式的各种形式作定语。 1. 这些短语作定语应放在被修饰名词的后面。如果单独一个V-ing或V-ed形式作定语,则可以放在被修饰名词前面。 2. 分词作定语时,其动作应与全句动作同时发生。V-ing表示主动意义和正在做,V-ed表示被动意义。being done表示正在被做的。 3. 不定式作定语表示将要发生的,to be done表示将要被做的。 例句: 1. Goods imported from abroad are not always better than those made in China. 2. A bridge connecting Asia with North America across the Bering Strait could be a critical link in the proposed global highway which would allow people to travel overland to anywhere in the world. 3. A driver starting off in the evening on the Russian side would arrive in Alaska on the morning of that same day, effectively traveling many hours back in time. 注意:还有一些结构已经形成了固定的短语: doing/done+名词 如: the fallen leaves a washing machine spoken English written English a dressing mirror a waiting room the coming year boiled water boiling water等 (二)There be句型中的非谓语动词的使用: There be + 名词+ to do:有……要做 +doing:有……正在做/发生 +done: 有……被…… There is nothing to worry about. There are birds singing in the tree. (三)用with/without短语做伴随状语。结构如下: with/without+名词+ doing 短语 done短语 to do 短语 介词短语/副词 例句: 1. Tom went away, without a word spoken. 2. Most of houses were built of bricks made of dried mud, with a roof supported by palm tree trunks. 3. He lay on his back, with his hands behind his head. 4. The silence was suddenly broken when a large car , with its headlights on and its horn blaring, roared down the arcade. 【典型例题】 一. 单项选择: 1. With a lot of difficult problems _____, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. A. settled B. settling C. to settle D. being settled 分析:With a lot of difficult problems _____ 意思是“有这么多难题要解决,”因此使用with+名词+to do 形式。 答案:C 2. How many of us_____, say, a meeting that is not important to us would be interested in the discussion? A. attended B. attending C. to attend D. have attended 分析:根据句意:比如说,我们当中参加一个对我们毫不重要的会议的人会有多少人对这个讨论感兴趣呢?_____, say, a meeting that is not important to us修饰How many of us做定语与全句动作同步。 答案:B 3. Don’t you think the question _____ tomorrow is of great importance. A. being discussed B. discussed C. to be discussed D. to discuss 分析:难道你不觉得明天要讨论的问题很重要吗?_____ tomorrow做定语修饰名词the question,表示:“将要被讨论的……” 用to be done 结构做定语。 答案:C 4. The picture ____ on the wall is painted by my nephew. A. having hung B. hanging C. hangs D. being hung 分析:The picture ____ on the wall:挂在墙上的画。Hang在句中是不及物动词。hanging做picture的定语。 答案:B 二. 翻译句子: 1. Though there is much to be concerned about, there is far, far more for which to be thankful. 答案:尽管人生有许多烦扰,但更多的是感恩。 2. The Amazon has over a thousand tributaries feeding into it. The entire river system is the size of North America. 答案:亚马孙河由一千多条支流汇交而成。整个水系覆盖的面积如北美洲一样大。 3. There is every reason to be hopeful about the future. As I make visits around the country, I see at first hand the effort being made to bring communities together. 答案:我们有理由对未来充满希望。在我巡视全国时,我亲眼看到人们为团结各社群而正在进行的努力。 4. There is certainly much more to be done and many challenges to be overcome. 答案:我们要做的事还有很多,要战胜的挑战也很多。 5. They all need to be reassured that there is so much to be gained by reaching out to others. 答案:他们都需要重新树立观点:了解他人受益匪浅。 6. The implication drawn by Jesus is clear. Everyone is our neighbor—no matter what race, creed or color. The need to look after a fellow human being is far more important than any cultural or religious differences. 答案:耶酥要传达的寓意十分清楚。无论何种民族,信仰和肤色,每一个人都是我们的邻居。照顾每个人的需要远远重要于任何文化和宗教上的分歧。 【模拟试题】(答题时间:50分钟) 一. 单项选择: 1. The missing boy were last seen _____near the river. A. playing B. to be plying C. play D. to play 2. Who did the teacher have ____ an article for the wall newspaper just now ? A. writing B. write C. to write D. written 3. They would not allow him ___ across the enemy line. A. to risk going B. risking going C. for risk going D. risk going 4. — Where should I send my form ? — The Personal office is the place ____. A. for sending it B. to send it to C. to send D. to send it 5. The students, ____ at the way the question was put, didn’t know how to answer it. A. being surprised B. surprising C. surprised D. having surprised 6. He is lying in bed, with his eyes looking at the ceilings and his hands ____ behind his head. A. to cross B. crossing C. cross D. crossed 7. The old man was moved by what she said, with tears ___ up in his eyes. A. welling B. welled C. rolling D. rolled 二. 阅读理解: “A band plays in Lumley Park every Sunday afternoon. I often attend these open-air concerts if the weather is fine, because I find it a very restful way of passing time, and because the band plays many kinds of music: dance music, marching music, anything with a tune you can whistle; you know what I mean.” “One Sunday, there was a blind girl in the front row of the audience, just behind the band-leader. She must have been about fourteen or fifteen years of age, I should think. She had been sitting down until about halfway through the programme, when the band started to play ‘ The Blue Danube’ by Johan Strauss. I’d never heard them play this particular piece before; and there was something magical about the way they played it then. They’d only played a few bars when this blind girl stood up and began waving her arms about in time to the music, just as the band-leader himself was doing. “After a while, I could see that more and more members of the band were watching the bind girl instead of the band-leader. And the leader must have noticed this himself, because he turned round and watched her, and saw that she was keeping perfect time. He was a very thoughtful man, that band-leader; I took my hat off to him. He moved to one side little by little, so that the band could see the blind girl better, and after a while he stopped conducting altogether. The band knew the piece quite well, of course, so things weren’t likely to go seriously wrong. But she kept time beautifully, and she made it clear when she wanted certain passages to be loud or soft, just as the band-leader himself had done. Since then, to be quite honest, I’ve never heard ‘The Blue Danube’ played better anywhere. “I have seldom heard an audience clap more loudly than that audience, when the music was over. I should think they must have heard the noise on the other side of the town. When the blind girl sat down, even from where I was sitting I could see that there were tears running down her face.” “And she wasn’t the only one in that audience who was crying, I can tell you.” 1. The speaker thought that attending the Sunday afternoon concerts is a pleasure because ____. A. a band plays music in Lumley Park. B. He could pass the time in a peaceful way in good weather C. His favourite music could be played by the band in the open air D. All the above 2. When the band was playing “The Blue Danube”, a blind girl who was sitting in the front row behind the band-leader____. A. stood up to play with the band B. stood up and waved her arms to keep perfect time by herself C. played just as the band-leader was doing D. listened to the particular piece “The blue Danube” 3. While the blind girl was waving her hands to keep time, _____. A. many more members of the band were still watching their and-leader B. the band-leader stopped conducting after a while and took off her hat to the girl C. the band kept playing wonderfully even without their band-leader D. the audience preferred the blind girl to the band-leader 4. From what the speaker said, it can be inferred that _____. A. he not only respected the band-leader but also thought highly of the blind girl B. he thought the blind girl was doing better than the band-leader C. he regarded the band as the first class band even without anyone conducting D. with the blind girl conducting, the concert was much more wonderful 三. 短文改错: Many children have a birthday cake with candle on their birthday. 1. ______ In some countries, like England and Scotland, there are another custom, 2. ______ too. There are people spank(拍打)or hit the child on his/her birthday. 3. ______ This may hurt a little, and they say it is very lucky for the child. The 4. ______ child must never cry. The custom sys that if you cry, you cry all year. 5. ______ The reason for birthday spanks is to make the bad spirits go 6. ______ away. The hard you spank the better it is. In Belgium, another 7. ______ country in Europe, the custom is a little difference. There a parent 8. ______ goes into the child room early in the morning with a needle(针) 9. ______ As soon as the child woke up, the parent pricks(刺)the child 10. _____ with the needle. This is for good luck. [参考答案] 一. 单项选择: 1. A 解析:那个失踪的男孩最后依次被看见正在河边玩。see sb. doing 的被动结构:sb. be seen doing. 2. B 解析:老师让谁写稿。have sb. do sth.:让某人做某事。 3. A 解析:allow sb to do sth.:允许某人做某事。 risk doing:冒险做某事。 4. B 解析:the place ____:把表格送到的地方。 send the form to the place 5. C 解析:surprised at the way the question was put形容词短语做定语。 6. D 解析:双手交叉在脑后。cross 与hand为动宾关系。With +名词+done结构。 7. A 解析:with tears ___ up in his eyes:指眼泪夺眶而出。well:涌出。与tears是主动关系。 二. 阅读理解: 1. D 解析:题干中的关键部分:出席周日下午的音乐会是一种乐趣的原因是……。根据第一段……if the weather was fine, because ….a very restful way of passing time, and because the band plays many kinds of music; dance music, marching music, anything with a tune you can whistle…可知A,B,C均符合题义。 2. B 解析:题干的关键:坐在前排即指挥后面的那位失明的女孩….。根据第二段最后两行… “this blind girl stood up and began waving her arms about in time to the music, just as the band-leader himself was doing.”… 3. C 解析:此题是判断“女孩打拍子时,乐队成员,乐队指挥,乐队和观众的表现。仔细阅读第三段,特别是最后四行The band knew the piece quite well, of course, so things weren’t likely to go seriously wrong. But she kept time beautifully, and she made it clear when she wanted certain passages to be loud or soft, just as the band-leader himself had done. Since then, to be quite honest, I’ve never heard ‘The Blue Danube’ played better anywhere.可以排除A,B,D。 4. A 解析:这是在总结作者的思想;根据第三段描述指挥 “he was a very thoughtful man,” 和最后两段可以得出结论:作者对小女孩和乐队指挥都给予了高度评价。 三. 短文改错: Many children have a birthday cake with candle on their birthday. 1. candles In some countries, like England and Scotland, there are another custom, 2. is too. There are people spank(拍打)or hit the child on his/her birthday. 3.去掉are This may hurt a little, and they say it is very lucky for the child. The 4. _but_ child must never cry. The custom says that if you cry, you ∧cry all year. 5. will The reason for birthday spanks is to make the bad spirits go 6.√ away. The hard you spank the better it is. In Belgium, another 7. harder country in Europe, the custom is a little difference. There a parent 8. different goes into the child room early in the morning with a needle(针). 9. child’s As soon as the child woke up, the parent pricks(刺)the child 10. wakes
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