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高一英语上册语法(6)

来源:101教育网整理 2014-12-22 字体大小: 分享到:

关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。
1)when, where, why
关系副词when, where, why的含义相当于"介词+ which"结构,因此常常和"介词+ which"结构交替使用,例如:
There are occasions when (on which) one must yield. 任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。
Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born. 北京是我的出生地。
Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? 这就是他拒绝我们帮助他的理由吗?

2)that代替关系副词
that可以用于表示时间、地点、方式、理由的名词后取代when, where, why和"介词+ which"引导的定语从句,在口语中that常被省略,例如:
His father died the year (that / when / in which) he was born. 他父亲在他出生那年逝世了。
He is unlikely to find the place (that / where / in which) he lived forty years ago. 他不大可能找到他四十年前居住过的地方。

方法一:用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系代词;而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。例如:
This is the mountain village where I stayed last year.
I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you.

判断改错(注:先显示题,再显示答案,横线;用不同的颜色表示出。)
(错) This is the mountain village where I visited last year.
(错) I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside.
(对) This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year.
(对) I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside.

习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词 where, when联系在一起。此两题错在关系词的误用上。

方法二: 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状),也能正确选择出关系代词/关系副词。
例1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days age?
A. where B. that C. on which D. the one
例2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held.
A. where B. that C. on which D. the one
答案:例1 D,例2 A

例1变为肯定句: This museum is ___ you visited a few days ago.
例2变为肯定句: This is the museum ___ the exhibition was held.
在句1中,所缺部分为宾语,而where, that, on which都不能起到宾语的作用,只有the one既做了主句的表语,又可做从句的宾语,可以省略关系代词,所以应选D。
而句2中, 主、谓、宾俱全,从句部分为句子的状语表地点,既可用副词where,又因 in the museum词组,可用介词in + which 引导地点状语。而此题中,介词on 用的不对,所以选A。
关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语时,选择关系代词 (who, whom, that, which, whose); 先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词 ( where 地点状语,when 时间状语,why 原因状语) 。

限制性和非限制性定语从句

1) 定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它主句意思往往不明确;非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明,去掉了也不会影响主句的意思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开,例如:
This is the house which we bought last month. 这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。(限制性)
The house, which we bought last month, is very nice.这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的。(非限制性)
2) 当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时,其后的定语从句通常是非限制性的,例如:
Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year. 查理·史密斯去年退休了,他曾经是我的老师。
My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden. 我去年买的的那幢房子带着个漂亮的花园。
This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching. 这本小说很动人,我已经读了三遍。

3) 非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从句谓语动词要用第三人称单数,例如:
He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me. 他似乎没抓住我的意思,这使我心烦。
Liquid water changes to vapor, which is called evaporation. 液态水变为蒸汽,这就叫做蒸发。

说明:关系代词that和关系副词why不能引导非限制性定语从句。

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