4. be afraid, be afraid to do sth., be afraid of (doing) sth.
(1) be afraid 意为“担心，害怕”，多用于口语，常用来表示一种歉意，或遗憾，后可接 so 或 not，也可接 that 从句。I'm afraid (that) 其语意相当于 I'm sorry, but...。
-- Are we on time? 我们准时吗? -- I'm afraid not. 恐怕不准时。I'm afraid you'll get caught in the rain.
(2) be afraid to do sth 常表示“由于胆小而不敢做某事”。She is afraid to be here alone. / He is afraid to jump into the river from the bridge.
(3) be afraid of (doing) sth. 常表示“担心或害怕某事(发生)”。I was afraid of hurting her feelings.
5. live, living, alive, lively
(1) live adj.
① 活的；活生生的；(只修饰生物；只作前置定语) The laboratory is doing experiments with several live monkeys.
② 实况直播的 (不是录音)It wasn't a recorded show. It was live.
③ 带电的；燃着的；可爆炸的 This is a live wire.
(2) living adj. 活着的，有生命的(作表语或定语) She was, he thought, the best living novelist in England. / The old man is still living. (或alive)
(3) alive adj. ① 活着的；② 有活力的；有生气
作后置定语：Who's the greatest man alive?
作表语：Was the snake alive or dead? / My grandmother is more alive than a lot of young people.
作补语：Let's keep the fish alive.
(4) lively adj. 活泼的；有生气的；活跃的(作表语或定语) The music is bright and lively.
6. take off, take down, take in, take on, take up
(1) take off
① (飞机)起飞 A helicopter is able to take off and land straight up or down.
② 脱下(衣裳等)；取下 He took off his wet shoes. / Who took the knob off the door?
③ 休假；请假；歇工 When his wife was sick he took off from work.
④ (指观念、产品) 大受欢迎；(事业)突然发达，成功The new type of cell phones has really taken off. / His business began to take off when he was in his forties.
(2) take down
① 拿下来；取下来 He reached up to the third shelf of the bookcase and took down a dictionary.
② 记下来 He read out the names and his secretary took them down.
(3) take in
① 接受 (房客，客人等)；收留 The farmers took in the lost travelers for the night.
② 理解；领会；明白 The boys could not take in his meaning.
③包括；涉及 The study of physics takes in many different subjects.
④使上当；欺骗We were completely taken in by her story.
(4) take on
① 接受；从事(某工作) After his father died, Bill took on the management of the factory.
② 雇用Is the supermarket taking on any more assis- tant?
③ 具有(新面貌、意思等) The city has taken on a new look.
(5) take up
① 从事某项活动；发展某种爱好 So many young men want to take up writing.
② 开始做(某项工作)；开始学习(某个课程) Then she took up the task of getting the breakfast. / He dropped medicine and took up physics.
③ 占去 (时间或空间) The meeting took up the whole morning. / The table takes up too much room.
④ 接受I'd like to take up your offer of a ride into town.
7. call for, call on, call up
(1) call for
① 来找(某人)；来取(某物) I'll call for you at your house.
②要求；需要Success in school calls for much hard work.
(2) call on
① call on / upon sb. 拜访；去会(某人) I hope to call on you at your office at 3 o’clock today.
② call on / upon sb. to do sth. 请／叫某人做某事He called upon me to speak immediately.
③ 号召；呼吁；要求 The President called on his people to serve the country.
(3) call up
① 给……打电话 (英 ring up) I tried to call you up last night, but no one answered the phone.
② 征召入役；调用 (后备部队) Three boys in our street were called up last week.
8. too much, much too
(1) too much “太多”之意，可以作形容词，修饰不可数 名词，也可作副词，修饰动词。 There is too much rain here in spring. / She talked too much at the meeting.
(2) much too “简直太，过于”，只能作副词，用来修饰 形容词或别的副词，不能修饰动词。This book is much too difficult for me. / The old man walks much too slowly.
9. custom, habit
(1) custom 指传统风俗、习俗，也可指生活习惯，后接不定式。They broke some of the old customs. / It is the custom in China to eat dumplings during the spring Festival.
(2) habit 指个人生活习惯。“(有)养成……习惯”常
用be in / fall into / get into / form / have the habit of doing sth. 句型；“戒掉……习惯”常用 give up / kick / break away from / get out of the habit of doing sth. 句型。It's easy to get into a bad habit but its hard to give it up. / The drug easily get one into the habit of smoking.
10. arise, rise, raise
arise vi.“站起来(stand up)”，“起床(get up)”，rise和arise用作站起，起床都属正式用法；arise主要表示“出现、发生”等意思。She raised her voice in anger. (抬高) The wind raised the fallen leaves from the ground. (刮起) The child rose from the ground and ran to his mother. (=The child raised himself from the ground and ran to his mother.) (爬起) She rises before it is light. (起床) Difficulties will arise as we do the work. (出现)
1. can't help doing sth. 禁不住做某事，不由得不做某事
She couldn't hep smiling.
(1) can't help but do 不得不……；不能不 When the streets are full of melting snow, you can't help but get your shoes wet.
(2) cannot but 不能不，只能He could not but feel disappointed.
(1) help (sb.) (to) do sth. Help me get him back to bed at once. / By helping them we are helping save ourselves.
(2) help...with sth. 帮助……做某事 In those days he used to help her mother with her gardening.
(3) help oneself / sb. to sth. 给自己 / 别人夹菜 / 拿烟
等；擅自拿用 May I help you to some more vegetables?
(4) help...in sth. 在……方面帮助某人 She offered to help Rose in the housekeeping when I am not here.
(5) help out 帮忙 (做事；克服困难等) I've often helped Bob out when he's been a bit short of money.
① go around 到处走／跑．(疾病)流传，(谣言)传开；go after 追求；go ahead 说吧，请吧，做吧；go away 离开，出去
② go back 走网头路，翻悔改变；go bad 变坏；go boating 去划船
③ go fishing 去钓鱼；go for a walk去 散步
④ go hiking 去徒步旅行；go home 回家
⑤ go in for 喜爱，从事于；go into 进入，加入
⑥ go mad 发疯
⑦ go off 离去，去世；go on 继续，进展，依据；go on doing 继续做；go out 出去，发出去，熄灭，不时兴；go over 研究，检查，搜查
⑧ go shopping 去商店；go skating 去滑冰；go straight along 沿着；go swimming 去游泳
⑨ go through 通过，经受，仔细检查；go to bed 上床
⑩ go up 上升
⑪ go wrong 走错路，误入歧途
[例句] We'll go through the items one by one. 我们要逐条研究。She has gone back to her old habits. 她又回到了已往的习惯。Come on Sunday by yourself - we can go over the house together. 星期天你要过来．我们一起检查一下房子。His speech went on for so long that people began to fall asleep. 他的演讲持续很长时间，结果人们开始想睡。That expression has gone out. Nobody Uses it today. 那个短语已经过时了，现在没有人在用它。The young fellow hasn't realized that he has gone wrong. 这个年轻人还没有意识到他已经误入歧途。Tired of going shopping with his wife，Mr. Liu pretended to have something important to do. 厌烦与妻子一起去购物，刘先生假装有重要的事情要做。
【考例2】(2004北京) I don't ____ rock' n' roll. It's much too noisy for my taste.
A. go after B. go away with
C. go into D. go in for
[答案与解析]D go after 追求；go away with 带走；go into进入，加入；go in for 喜爱，爱好。根据句子意思“摇滚音乐太嘈杂。不合乎我的口味．所以我不喜欢”。
【考例】(NMET 1998) Nobody noticed the thief slip into the house because the lights happened to ____.
A. be put up B. give in
C. be turned on D. go out
[答案与解析] D put up 挂起；give in 屈服；turn on 打开；go out 熄灭。本句话意思是“没有人注意到贼溜进了屋子，因为灯碰巧熄灭了”。
3. go wrong
(2) 失败；不顺利All our plans went wrong. / Everything went wrong in those days.
(3)发生故障 The clock went wrong.
(1) go 表示由积极向消极方面变化Fish soon goes bad in hot weather. 又如：go mad / pale / blind / hungry
(2) become / get 表示由积极向消极或消极向积极方
面变化 The weather is getting quite warm. / Gradually he became silent.
(3) turn 多接表颜色的词 This ink turns black when it dries. / He used to be a teacher till he turned writer.
注意：become a writer
(4) grow 侧重变化过程 The sea is growing calm.
(5) fall 进入某种状态 All three children fell asleep.
4. owe...to... 受到恩惠；归功于……
(1) 欠(钱)owe sb. money = owe money to sb.
I owe ￡50 to my tailor. = I owe my tailor ￡50.
We owe a great deal to our parents and teachers.
(3) 应当给予 You owe me an apology.
We owe the general theory of relativity to Einstein.
[拓展]表示“由于”的词组：owing to / because of / thanks to / due to / as a result of
5. take one's place
(1) 入座，站好位置，取得地位Take your places, please. We are about to start.
(2) take one's place = take the place of sb. 代替(职务或工作等)；接替Electric trains have now taken the place of steam trains in England.
(1) in place (of)代替；……而不用The grown-ups had coffee but the children wanted milk in place of coffee.
(2) take one's seat 在自己座位上坐下；有时等于 take one's place：More men entered and took their seats.
6. think highly of 赞扬
(1) think / speak highly / well / much...of: The people think very highly of him.
(2) think little / badly / poorly / nothing...of: Joan thought little of walking two miles to school.
7. 含“动词 + away”的短语
① do away with 去掉
② get away 逃脱，(使)离开
③ go away 离去，出去
④ put away 放好，把……收拾起来，存(钱)以备它日之用
⑤ run away 逃走，离开
⑥ smooth away 去除，克服
⑦ stay away (from) 不在家，外出
⑧ take away 拿走，带走，夺去，使离去
⑨ throw away 扔掉．浪费．坐失(良机)
[例句]Don't throw away such a good chance. Or you'll regret. 不要放弃这么好的机会，不然的话，你会后悔
的。Put away the tools before you leave. 离开前把工具收拾好。Why did you stay away from school? 你为什么不去上学? I had hoped to take a good holiday this year but I wasn't able to get away. 我本打算今年好好去度假，但是我离不开。
【考例】(2004重庆)Before the war broke out, many
people ____ in safe places possessions they could
not take with them．
A. threw away B. put away
C. gave away D. carried away
[答案与解析]B throw away 扔掉；put way 放好，把
……收拾起来；give away 分发．泄露；carry away 冲
8. 含“动词 + off”的短语
① drop off 放下，下车
② fall off (从……)掉下来
③ get off (从……)下来，动身，起飞，脱下来
④ give off 发出，放出
⑤ jump off 跳离
⑥ put off 推迟，延期
⑦ set off 出发，引起，启程
⑧ see sb off 为某人送行，为……送行
⑨ switch off 关掉
⑩ take off 脱，去掉，起飞，匆匆离开，成名
⑪ throw off 匆忙脱掉
⑫ turn off 关掉，避开，拐弯
[例句]The electricity supply must be turned off at the mains before you change the lighting circuit. 在改变火线前，主干线的电力供应必须切断。 Mrs Garey as usual went to the door to see him off. Garey夫人像通常一样把他送到门口。He had to put off an appointment with me on account of illness. 因为疾病的缘故，他不得不推迟了与我的约会。Before the body of the car can be properly repaired, all the external fittings must be taken off. 车身适当修理前，所有外部的配件必须拿下来。The fire doesn't seem to be giving off much heat. 这炉火好像不大热。
【考例】(2005广东) John is leaving for London tomorrow and I will ____ him ____ at the airport.
A. send...away B. leave...off
C. see...off D. show...around
[答案与解析]C see off 意为“给某人送行”；send away意为“派遣”；leave off意为“停止，不再穿”；show around意为“带领某人参观”。
1. My grandmother had put ____ over$50,000 when she was sixty—five years old.
2. His mother had thought it would be good for his charac- ter to get ____ home and earn some money on his own.
3. The market was filled ____ salted fish, giving the worst smell that you can imagine.
4. -- What do you think the contest? -- I was told that the English Speech Contest went ____ successfully last night.
5. If you had gone ____ your test paper carefully before handing it in you would have made fewer mistakes.
1. The reason why he could not go there was that his grades were too low. 他没能上电影学院是因为他的分数太低了。
1. 句中that引导的表语从句说明主语reason的具体内容，往往被看作是固定句型：The reason is / was that clause. 当主语是reason / cause时，一般不能用because或why引导表语从句，以免造成语意重复。当主语是This / That时，可以由because / why引导表语从句。例如：One reason is that people traveled to America from all European countries.