4. get close to
(1) close adj. 靠近；接近
The church is close to the shops.
Are you a close friend of theirs?
(2) close adv. 靠近；接近
He was standing close to the door.
(3) close v. 关上；关闭(不开发)；结束
She closed her eyes. / Her eyes closed. (闭上)
(4 ) closely adv. 紧密地；仔细地；密切地
He got closely in touch with the magazines of today.
The little baby was closely looked after by her.
(1) close 与 closely 作副词时，close含具体之意，closely 含抽象之意。
(2) 类似的词组有 high (高) -- highly (高度地)，deep (深深地) -- deeply (深入地)，wide (很开，宽) -- widely (广 泛地)，low (低的)-- lowly (低贱的) (作形容词)
5. hand in 交上去(给老师或上级)；交来(hand v.)
Each student has to hand in a composition once a week.
(1) hand down 传下来；传给 Our father handed down these customs to us.
(2) hand on…to…传给，传递They will hand the photograph to those who have not seen it.
(3) hand out 发给大家；散发 The teacher handed out the books at the beginning of the lesson．
6. instead of 代替……
(1) instead of + n. / pron.
Give me the red one instead 0f the green one.
(2) instead of + doing
We walked down the stairs instead of taking the elevator.
(3) instead of + 介词短语
He studies in the evening instead of during the day.
(1) instead adv. 作为替代 (……而)，代替 If Harry is not well enough to go with you, take me instead.
(2) rather than 而不是，与其……宁愿 He ran rather than walked.
(3) in place of 代替，……而不用The Chinese use chopsticks in place of knives and forks.
① take a picture 照相，拍照
② take a taxi / bus, etc. 打的(坐公交车等)
③ take away 拿走，夺取，使离去
④ take care of 小心，照料，保管
⑤ take off 脱，去掉，取消，起飞
⑥ take out 拿出，带……出去
⑦ take one's place 就坐，坐某人的座位，代替某人的位置
⑧ take place 发生，产生
⑨ take exercise 做运动
⑩ take a seat 坐下
⑪ take turns 轮流
⑫ take an active part in 积极参加
⑬ take a message 捎口信
⑭ take on 从事，呈现
⑮ take the place of 取代，代替
⑯ take apart 拆开
⑰ take down 拿下，记下
⑱ take...for... 误认为……
⑲ take in 吸收，接纳
⑳ take up 拿起．从事．占据
[例句] Father was convinced that Peter was unhappy at boarding school, and made arrangements to take him away. 父亲确信彼得在寄宿学校不开心，决定把他带走。/ Will you lake care of buying the wine for tonight's party? 你负责为今晚的晚会买酒水好吗? / The boys got into the car and took off for the drug store. 男孩们进到车里，开车去了药店。/ He took my place in the queue so that I could go and get something to eat. 他替我排好了队，以便我能够回
8. used to
(1) used to do sth. 过去常常……(现在已不如此)
We used to grow beautiful roses.
You usedn’t to make that mistake.
She didn't use(d) to do it, did she?
You used to smoke a pipe, didn't you? / use(d) n't you?
(2) be / get / become used to + n. / doing 习惯于
I have always been used to hard work.
He got used to living in the country.
(3) be used to do 被用来做……
This knife is used to cut bread.
(1) would 只强调“过去常常……”，used to 说明现在不是如此。
The old woman would sit there for hours doing nothing.
(2) would 只接行为动词，used to 可接行为动词和表状态的词。如：be, like, know, have。There used to be a temple at the foot of the mountain.
9. watch out 当心；注意
You'll be cheated if you don't watch out.
(1) watch out for = look out for 提防；当心
You must always watch out for the traffic here!
(2) watch over 照看；看守；负责
The mother bird is watching over her young.
10. 含“动词 + out”短语
① come out 出来，出版，传出
② go out 出去，熄灭，不时兴
③ look out 当心，注意
④ take out 拿出，取出，带……出去
⑤ rush out 冲出去，匆忙大量生产
⑥ try out 尝试，试验
⑦ watch out 小心
⑧ wear out 穿破，用坏，(使)疲乏，消磨
⑨ find out 找出，查出
⑩ make out 填写，完成．设法应付
⑪ get out 出去，逃离，泄露，公布
⑫ pick out 看出，选出
⑬ think out 想出
⑭ give out 发出，筋疲力尽
⑮ set out出发，陈述
[例句]Please go out and tell the children to make less noise. 请出去告诉孩子们不要吵闹。/ These bicycles have been rushed out and not up to our usual standard. 这些自行车匆忙大量生产，没有达到我们的正常标准。/ Watch out. The train is coming. 小心，火车来了。/ Your will wear out your patience in time, my friend. 朋友，最终我们会没有耐心的。
【考例】(2005湖北) This picture was taken a long time ago. I wonder if you can ____ my father.
A. find out B. pick out
C. look out D. speak out
[答案与解析]B pick out意为“挑选，辨别出”；find out意为“找出．发现”；look out意为“留神，注意”： speak out意为“大声说出”。
(get away，take up，take on，think out，get down to)
1. -- Shall we set off right now? -- Sorry. I'm too busy to ____ for the moment. (get away)
2. The final examination is coming: you really must ____ your studies. (get down)
3. The manager doesn't have much free time as his work ____ nearly all his spare time. (takes up)
4. We also shared a number of qualities which we fell were in our favor when we ____ the task. (took on)
5. He might have ___his idea about the art exhibition much better, if he had planned what he wanted to say. (thought out)
1. You shouldn't go rafting unless you know how to swim, and you should always wear a life jacket. 除非你会游泳，而且要一直穿着救生衣，否则就不应该去做漂流运动。
该句中的unless引导状语从句。例如：One can't learn a foreign language well unless he studies hard.
【考例】(200l北京春招)The men will have to wait all day ____ the doctor works faster.
A. if B. unless C. whether D. that
2. Eco-travel is a way to find out what can be done to help animals and plants as well as people. 生态游可以找到既帮助别人．又帮助动植物的途径。
该句中的as well as是连词，连接两个并列成分。例如: He can speak German as well as French.
1. well是副词，意思是“好，优秀”，as well as是形容词 同级比较结构。
2. as well as是固定短语，意思是“和”，相当于"not only … but also..."。
3. as well as连接两个并列成分作主语时，句子的谓语动词应该与前面那个名词或代词的人称或数保持一致。
4. as well as还可当作复杂介词用，意思是“除了……之外，还有”；相当于"besides，apart from"。
5. as well，是副词短语，意思是“也”，相当于“too / also”常位于句尾，与too位置相当。
6. may / might as well do sth 表示“还是……的好”。
【考例】(NMET 1994) John plays football ____, if not better than David.
A. as well B. as well as C. so well D. so well as
[考查目标] as well as连接比较状语从句。
[答案与解析]B 该句中 if not better than相当于插入语，起干扰作用，如果不予考虑，原句就变成了同级比较结构 "John plays football as well as David"。
3. Before she could move，she heard a loud noise. 她还没有来得及动弹，就听见很响的声音。
However, before she could think twice, the water was upon her. 但还没有回过身来，洪水便逼近了她。
该两句中的before用作连词，后接时间状语从句。before用作连词，接时间状语从句时，表示“在……之前”。但在不同的语境中，往往有比较灵活的译法。例如: He knocked me down before he saw me. 他差一点把我撞倒，才看到我。
【考例】(2005广东) The American Civil War lasted four years the North won in the end.
A. after B. before C. when D. then
[答案与解析]B before 表示“直到……”。
4. Tree after tree went down, cut down by the water, which must have been three meters deep. 洪水想必深达三米，树一棵接一棵地倒了，被洪水冲断了。
该句中的must have been表示推测。例如：You look so tired. You must have stayed up last night.
You may be a professor. / She must have met a fairy.
【考例】(2005辽宁)This cake is very sweet. You ____ a lot of sugar in it.
A. should put B. could have put
C. might put D. must have put
[答案与解析] D 前文说蛋糕很甜，由此可知一定是糖
5. ... she heard a loud noise，which grew to a terrible roar. ……她听见了很响的声音，接着就变成了可怕的隆隆轰鸣声。
该句中的which引导非限制性定语从句。例如：He bought some reference books, which were all about science. 他买了许多的参考资料．都是有关理科的。
which 作为关系代词．既可以引导限制性定语从句，也可以引导非限制性定语从句。例如：The train which left for Beijing pulled in on time. 前往北京的火车按时进站了。His dog, which was now very old, became ill and died.他的狗，现在老了，生病死了。
【考例】(2005浙江) Jim passed the driving test, ____ surprised everybody in the office.
A. which B. that C. this D. it
现在进行时的用法(is / am / are + doing)
1. 表示现在(说话的瞬间)正在进行或发生的动作。 Look! The monkey is climbing the banana tree.
2. 表示当前一段时间内的活动或现阶段正在进行的动作。(说话时动作不一定正在进行。) We are preparing for the meeting to be held next Friday now.
3. 表示说话人现在对主语的行为表示赞叹、惊讶、厌恶等。(常与always, constantly, continually, all the time, forever 等副词连用)，表反复的动作。He is always think- ing of others. (表赞许) She is always asking the same question. (表厌恶) You are always changing your mind. (表抱怨)
4. 表示在最近计划或安排要进行的动作。常用于go, come, leave, start, arrive, return, work, stay 等表移动、方向的动词。He is starting the work in a few minutes. / He is leaving for Beijing tomorrow morning.
(1) 系动词: feel, sound, smell, taste, look, appear, seem, remain, prove 等。
(2) 表结果的感官动词: see, notice, hear 等。
(3) 非延续性的动词，此动作开始即是结束：enter, accept, receive等。
(4) 表心理状态，存在状态，拥有的动词：love, like, hate, care, dislike, respect, prefer, know, understand, forget, remember, believe, want, wish, hope, mind, agree, belong to, depend on, own, have等。
2. 用进行时的特殊词有系动词get, turn, grow, become, go, come, fall 等表由一种状态转入另一种状态时，用进行时表示渐近。Today, many rivers that were polluted are getting cleaner and cleaner. 当今，许多过去遭污染的河流又变得越来越清澈了。
-- How are you getting to the airport?
-- By taxi. Bob is coming with me to the airport.
(2) will do 和 shall do
二、三人称。I will / shall finish middle school next month.
② 表有科学根据的预测。The weather report says it will rain tomorrow.
③ 表客观必然。Man will make mistakes.
(3) be going to
① 表现在打算在近期或将来要做某事。I'm going to finish my homework tonight.
② 表根据已有迹象的预测。It's so dark outside, I think it's going to rain.
③ be going to不与come, go连用，而用be coming, be going 形式。Mary is coming here this evening.