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高一英语教案:Unit3 Men and Women Different

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Unit 3 Men and WomenDifferent Roles in Society
一. 教学内容:

Unit 3 (II)
语法讲解:
直接引语和间接引语
引述或转述别人的话称为“引语”。直接引用别人的原话,两边用引号标出,叫做直接引语;用自己的语言转述别人的话,不需要引号叫做间接引语,实际上间接引语大都是宾语从句(其中由祈使句转换的间接引语除外,其转换后是不定式)。那么直接引语为陈述句、一般疑问句、特殊疑问句和祈使句,转换为间接引语时,句子的结构、人称、时态、时间状语和地点状语等都要有变化,如何变化呢?
1. 人称的转变
(1)直接引语中的第一人称,一般转换为第三人称,如:
He said,“I am very sorry.” →He said that he was very sorry.
(2)直接引语中的第二人称,如果原话是针对转述人说的,转换为第一人称,如:
“You should be more careful next time,” my father told me.→
My father told me that I should be more careful the next time.
(3)直接引语中的第二人称,如果原话是针对第三人称说的,转换成第三人称。如:
She said to her son, “I'll check your homework tonight.” →
She said to her son that she would check his homework that night.
(4)人称的转换包括人称代词、物主代词和名词性物主代词等,如:
He asked me, “Will you go to the station with me to meet a friend of mine this afternoon?” →
He asked me whether I would go to the station with him to meet a friend of his that afternoon.
总之,人称的转换不是固定的,具体情况,具体对待,要符合逻辑。
2. 时态的转换
直接引语改为间接引语时,主句中的谓语动词如果是过去时,从句(即间接引语部分)的谓语动词在时态方面要作相应的变化,变成过去时范畴的各种时态(实际也是宾语从句的时态要求),变化如下:
直接引语 间接引语 直接引语 间接引语
一般现在时 一般过去时 一般过去时 过去完成时
现在进行时 过去进行时 过去完成时 过去完成时
现在完成时 过去完成时 过去进行时 过去进行时
一般将来时 过去将来时
例如:
“I am very glad to visit your school”, she said. →
She said she was very glad to visit our school.
Tom said, “We are listening to the pop music.” →
Tom said that they were listening to the pop music.
Mother asked, “Have you finished your homework before you watch TV?” →
Mother asked me whether I had finished my homework before I watched TV.
He asked the conductor, “Where shall I get off to change to a No. 3 bus?” →
He asked the conductor where he would get off to change to a No. 3 bus.
“Why did she refuse to go there?” the teacher asked. →
The teacher asked why she had refused to go there.
Mother asked me, “Had you finished your homework before you watched TV?” →
Mother asked me whether I had finished my homework before I watched TV.
Tom said, “We were having a football match this time yesterday.” →
Tom said that they were having a football match that time the day before.
He said,“I haven't heard from my parents these days.” →
He said that he hadn't heard from his parents those days.
3. 直接引语变成间接引语时,从句时态无须改变的情况
(1)当主句的谓语动词是一般现在时的时候,如:
He always says, “I am tired out.” →He always says that he is tired out.
(2)当主句的谓语动词是将来时的时候,如:
He will say, “I’ll try my best to help you.” →He will say that he will try his best to help me.
(3)当直接引语部分带有具体的过去时间状语时,如:
He said, “I went to college in 1994.” →He told us that he went to college in 1994.
(4)当直接引语中有以when, while引导的从句,表示过去的时间时,如:
He said,“When I was a child, I usually played football after school.” →
He said that when he was a child, he usually played football after school.
(5)当直接引语是客观真理或自然现象时,如:
Our teacher said to us, “Light travels faster than sound.” →
Our teacher told us that light travels faster than sound.
(6)当引语是谚语、格言时,如:
He said,“Practice makes perfect.” →He said that practice makes perfect.
(7)当直接引语中有情态动词should, would, could, had better, would rather, might, must, ought to, used to, need时,如:
例如:
The doctor said, “You'd better drink plenty of water.” →
The doctor said I'd better drink plenty of water.
He said, “She must be a teacher.”→ He said that she must be a teacher.
He said, “She ought to have arrived her office by now.”→
He said that she ought to have arrived her office by then.
The teacher said, “You needn't hand in your compositions today.”→
The teacher said we needn't/didn't need to/didn't have to hand in our compositions.
She asked, “Must I take the medicine?”→ She asked if she had to take the medicine.
[注]:此处用had to代替must更好
(8)此外转述中的变化要因实际情况而定,不能机械照搬,如果当地转述,here不必改为there, 动词come不必改为go,如果当天转述yesterday, tomorrow, this afternoon等均不必改变。如:
Teacher: You may have the ball game this afternoon.
Student : What did the teacher say, Monitor?
Monitor: He said we might have the ball game this afternoon.
4. 时间状语、地点状语及某些对比性的指示代词和动词变化
(1)时间状语:
直接引语 间接引语 直接引语 间接引语
now then tomorrow the next(following)day
today that day next week the next(following)week(month, year)
yesterday the day before two days ago two days before
last week (month, year) the week(month, year)before this week that week(month, year)
(2)指示代词:these 变成those
(3)地点状语:here变成there
She said, “I won't come here any more.”→ She said that she wouldn’t go there any more.
(4)动词:come变成go,bring变成take
5. 直接引语变成间接引语,句子结构的变化
(1)陈述句。用连词that引导,that在口语中常省略。主句的谓语动词可用直接引语中的said, 也可用told来代替,注意,可以说said that, said to sb. that, told sb. that,不可直接说told that, 如:
He said, “I have been to the Great Wall.” →He said to us that he had been to the Great Wall.
He said, “I'll give you an examination next Monday.”→
He told us that he would give us an examination the next Monday.(不可说told that)
此外主句中的谓语还常有:
repeat, whisper, answer, reply, explain, announce, declare, think等,又如:
He said,“I'm late because of the heavy traffic.”→ He explained to us that he was late because of the heavy traffic.
如果间接引语是由that引导的两个或两个以上的并列从句,第一个连词可以省略,以后的连词一般不省略,以免混乱。
The doctor said, “You are not seriously ill, You will be better soon.”→
The doctor said(that)I was not seriously ill and that I would be better soon.
(2)直接引语为一般疑问句,(也称是否疑问句,)间接引语用连词whether或if引导,原主句中谓语动词said要改为asked(me/him/us等),语序是陈述句的语序,这一点非常重要。
He said, “Do you have any difficulty with pronunciation?”→
He asked(me)whether/if I had any difficulty with my pronunciation.
He said, “You are interested in English, aren't you?”→
He asked whether I was interested in English.
(3)直接引语为选择疑问句,间接引语用whether…or…表达,而不用if…or…,也不用either…or…。如:
He asked, “Do you speak English or French?”→
He asked me whether I spoke English or French.
I asked, “Will you take bus or take train?”→
I asked him whether he would take bus or take train.
(4)直接引语为特殊疑问句,改成间接引语时,原来的疑问词作为间接引语的连词,主句的谓语动词用ask(sb.)来表达,语序改为陈述句语序。如:
He asked,“What's your name?”→ He asked(me)what my name was.
He asked us, “How many car factories have been built in your country?”→
He asked us how many car factories had been built in our country.

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