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人教新课标高二英语必修五unit4重点词汇

来源:101教育网整理 2015-05-14 字体大小: 分享到:

1.eager(keen, anxious) adj. 热切的;渴望的(after, about, for)

The boy was eager for success. 男孩子急于获得成功。

He is eager for his parents to meet his girlfriends. 他盼望他的父母去见他的女朋友。

The saleswoman in the shop is always eager to please everybody.

"商店里的那个女售货员总是十分殷勤,希望使人人满意。"

【习惯用语】

be eager for 渴望, 渴求, 争取

be eager about 渴望, 渴求, 争取

be eager after 渴望, 渴求, 争取

be eager to do 急欲, 渴望做

【参考词汇】

eager /keen /anxious 意思都含“渴望的”。

eager指“以巨大的热情渴望实现愿望或达到目的的”, 有时也指“由于其他感情影响而表现急不可耐的”, 如:

He was eager to see her. 他渴望见到她。

keen 指“对某人、某物怀有极大兴趣或热情的”, 如: They were keen to win. 他们急于取胜。

anxious 指“热切地希望实现愿望,并因顾虑愿望落空而心情不安,感到焦虑的”, 如: l'm anxious to know the final result. 我急于想知道最后的结果。

eagerly adv. eagerness n.

2.work/task/ duty/job/responsibility

【参考词汇】

work 常指正式职业和职位的经常性、一般性工作,不含有“艰巨”、“沉重”等意思。是不可数名词。at work在工作

work hard at努力工作(或学习);out of work失业。My work is as a doctor.我当医生(职业)。

task 一般指必须完成的“任务”, 是可数名词。如: Mother set me the task of sweeping the floor.母亲把扫地的任务 交给了我。task 往往含有“艰巨”、“沉重”等意思。而work 除另有修饰语外不含此种意思。

duty指“道义上的责任”, 较强调“自觉性”, 如: Every citizen has the duty to construct his country. 每个公民都有建设祖国的责任。

job指“活、事、一份工作”时是可数名词,多指为换取报酬而进行的日常活动,尤指作为某人的手艺、行业或职业的工作。可数。Washing the windows is not my job. 洗窗子不是我的事儿(任务)。习惯表达: a good job一件好事lose one's job失业be out of a job失业 do a good job干的不错

It was his job to repair bicycles and at that time he used to work fourteen hours aday.修理自行车就是他的话,而且常常是一天要干14个小时。

responsibility 指“由于法律、职业或道德等的要求而应尽的责任”, 含有“法津上对后果负责任”的意味, 如:

The resposibility rests on us. 这由我们负责。Do not forget your duty to your parents. 不要忘记对父母应尽的责任。

3.course n. 过程;经过;进程

in the course of discussion 在讨论期间

道路;路线;方向 The ship was blown off course. 那船被吹离航线。

【习惯用语】

in course of 在...的过程中

in due course 在适当的时候;不久以后

in the courts of在...期间

during the course of 在...期间

4.meanwhile adv. 此时 同时

They'll be here soon. Meanwhile we'll have some coffee. 他们即刻就到,我们现在先喝点咖啡。

Meanwhile, my tongue was busy searching out the hole where the tooth had been.

与此同时,我的舌头忙于寻找被拔牙齿的伤口。

Meanwhile, two other actors had carried two large food baskets to a shady spot under some trees.

与此同时,另外两位演员把两个盛着食物的大篮子拿到树下荫凉的地方。

Jane was writing a letter and meanwhile Pat was watching T.V.. 简在写信,而在此同时帕特在看电视。

5.case n.事;事例

This is a case of stupidity, not dishonesty. 这只是个愚蠢的例子,并非不诚实。

情形;场合;状况 'Well, in that case, I would prefer to stay on the bus,' I answered. `唉,那样的话,我宁愿留在车上啦,'我回答说。

a case of poverty 穷苦的情形

病症;病例 This is a case of fever. 这是一发烧的病例。

案件;诉讼 a difficult case to prove 一个很难办的案子

In this case I'm acting for my friend Mr Smith. 我在这次诉讼中代表我的朋友史密斯的利益。

The case against Mr. White is said to be heard tomorrow. 据说怀特先生被起诉一案定于明天开庭。

The case was settled out of court. 这案件在庭外解决。

事实;实情 The police have a clear case against the prisoner. 警察有充足的事实对付那个囚犯。

Is that the case? No, that's not the case. 事实是那样吗?不,事实并非如此。

【习惯用语】

in case假使,以防(引导虚拟语气)

Take a hat with you in case the sun is very hot. 倘若太阳很利害,你就把帽子戴上。

in case of假如;如果;万一 In case of rain they can't go. 万一下雨,他们就不能去了。

in any case无论如何,不管怎样

in no case 决不;无论如何不

in that case 如果是那样的话

in this case 假如这样的话

in the case of 就...来说, 关于

6.accuse vt. accused, accusing 控告;指控

The police accused him of murder. 警方指控他谋杀。 The police accused him of stealing. 警方控告他犯有盗窃罪。

Mary was accused as an accomplice. 玛丽被指控为同谋犯。

■accuse/charge

两个动词都有“控诉,指控”之意,但它们后面所搭配的介词不同。

accuse v.指控,控诉,与介词of连用。The police accused him of theft.警察指控他犯有盗窃罪。

charge v.可以指因为小错而受的责备,也指因违法而受到控告,与介词with连用。

The police charged him with murder.警察指控他犯了谋杀罪。

【常用搭配】in charge of 主管,看管 in(under)the charge of 在……的掌管下

charge sb.with 指控某人………

charge(sb.)…(money)for sth. 要价,要(某人)付….(钱)买某物

take charge 开始管理,接管

7.deny vt. denied, denying 否认;否定;拒绝相信

He said that I had stolen his bicycle, but I denied it. 他说我偷了他的自行车,可是我否认了。

背弃;摒弃 He denied his country. 他背弃了自己的国家。

拒绝;不给;不予;不允许 He denies his wife nothing. 他对他的妻子有求必应。

【习惯用语】

deny oneself 自制;克己;舍弃

●deny /decline /refuse /reject 都含“拒绝”的意思。

▲deny指“坚定地否认某事为真实的”,如: He denied the charge. 他否认了控告。

deny doing(否认做过某事);deny sb. sth(拒绝给某人某物)。Deny+that从句

▲decline 指“较正式地、有礼貌地谢绝”,如: He declined our invitation to dinner.他婉拒了我们请他吃饭的邀请。主要用于拒绝有关社交活动的邀请或要求帮助的请求,后接名词或动词不定式,主语只能是人。I invited her to join us, but she declined.我邀请她和我们在一起,可是她婉言谢绝了。

▲refuse 系普通用语,指“坚决、果断或坦率地(不友善地)拒绝”, 如: He refused to take the money. 他拒绝接受此款。

▲reject指“以否定、敌对的态度而当面拒绝”(指通过抛弃或送走、专横地拒绝), 主语可以是人或物,后接名词,不能接动词不定式。如: They rejected damaged goods. 他们拒收损坏的货物。He asked her to go to the movies three times, and each time she rejected him.他三次约她去看电影,但每一次都被拒绝。

8.defend vt. 保卫;防护;防守

She had to defend herself against the guard dog. 她不得不防备看门狗咬她。

辩护;辩解 ;守卫;防御

He's better at defending than attacking. 他的防守优于进攻。 The accused man had a lawyer to defend him. 被告有一律师为他辩护。

【习惯用语】 defend against 保卫; 抵抗 defend from 保护, 保卫(使不受伤害)

【参考词汇】 defend /guard /protect /preserve 都含“保护”、“使安全”的意思。

defend指“保卫”、“防御”, 应用范围很广, 对象可以是具体的, 也可以是抽象的, 用于defend sb. against / from harm结构。如: defend oneself against enemy 防御敌人。

guard 指“注意观察、戒备, 以免受可能的攻击或伤害”, 如: guard a coastline 守卫海岸线。

protect 指“保护...以免遭受危险或伤害等”, 常用protect sb. from sth./against sth.的结构。如: protect the children from harm 保护儿童免受伤害。

preserve 指“防护、保存...免被分解或腐烂”, 如: Salt preserves food from decay. 盐能防止食物腐烂。

secure指确保不会发生意外等如secure oneself against/from danger使自己免于危险。

By strengthening the river banks, the city secured itself against flood. 由于加强了河堤, 该城可确保免受水灾。

9.normal adj. 正常的;常态的;一般的

The normal price of a ticket if $230! 一张票的正常价格是230英镑。

above [below] normal 标准以上[下] return to normal 恢复正常

The rain raised the river two meters above normal. 雨水使得这条河水位超出标准两米。

智力正常的;身心健全的 a normal child

【参考词汇】

■normal /ordinary /regular 都含“正常的”、“正规的” 、“普通的”的意思。

normal指“正常的”、“正规的”、“常态的”, 如: the normal temperature of the human body 人的正常体温。

ordinary强调“平常的”、“平淡无奇的”, 常指人或事物不特殊。 如:His ordinary supper consists of only bread and milk. 他通常的晚餐不过是面包和牛奶。an ordinary day's work 日常工作。

regular 指“有规律的”、“正规的”、“定期的”, 如: He kept regular hours. 他过着有规律的生活。

common强调“常见的”、“不足为奇的”, 如:Colds are common in winter.感冒在冬天很常见。common knowledge/sense 常识

general意为“普遍的”、“一般的”, 如:This book is intended for the general reader, not for the specialist. 这本书是为一般读者写的, 不是为教师写的。

10.注意几个表否定的副词

▲seldom adv. 不常,很少

The children are seldom ill. 这些孩子很少生病。Opportunity seldom knocks twice.机不可失,时不再来。

▲barely adv. 贫乏地;刚刚

They had barely time to catch the plane. 他们差点没来得及赶上飞机。

The committee had barely entered into the matter when he felt dizzy. 委员会刚开始讨论此事,他就感到头晕了。

He had barely enough money to buy food. 他仅有刚够买食物的钱。

▲hardly adv. 几乎不;简直不

This is hardly the time to discuss such matters. 在现在讨论这事根本不合适。

It was so dark that I could hardly see. 天那么黑,我简直看不见了。

I can hardly ask him directly for more money. 我绝不能直接向他多要钱。

He hardly ever eats meat. 他从来不吃肉。 Peter is hardly ever late. 玛丽几乎从不迟到。

【习惯用语】 hardly any 几乎没有 hardly ever 很少

▲scarcely adv. 不足地,不充分地, 几乎没有

There is scarcely enough food. 几乎没有足够的食物。

There was scarcely anything mentioned about that contract. 关于那份合同几乎什么也没提到。

…scarcely ….when/before…刚…一...就... (=…hardly…when…= …no sooner…than….)

▲narrowly adv. 仅仅;勉强; 恰好

One car narrowly missed hitting the other one. 一辆车差点儿和另一辆相撞。

The boy narrowly escaped being drowned. 那个男孩差一点被淹死。

▲nearly adv. 几乎,差不多

The job's nearly finished. 这工作差不多完成了。 She nearly died. 她差点儿死了。

Nearly everybody enters for 'The Nicest Garden Competition' each year, but Joe wins every time.

几乎每个人都参加一年一度'最佳花园赛',但乔每次都夺魁。

I looked down and nearly fell off the ladder when I saw a policeman. 我朝下一望看到一个警察时,差上点从梯子上掉下来

▲rarely adv. 难得,很少

She is old and rarely goes out. 她年纪大了,很少外出。

He rarely comes here anymore. 现在他难得来这儿。

Big Ben has rarely gone wrong. `大本钟'很少出差错。

Peter is rarely / seldom late. 彼得不常迟到。;彼得很少迟到。

11.accurate adj. 准确的;精确的 accurately adv. accurateness n.

an accurate answer 准确的答案

Is this watch accurate? 这只表准吗?

【参考词汇】

accurate /correct /exact 均含“正确的”意思。

accurate 表示“准确的”,精确的”,指“通过努力, 使事情达到正确”, 指某人或某事不仅不出错,而且与事实无出入,强调准确性 如: She gave an accurate account of the accident. 她对事故做了准确的描述。

correct 为一般用语, 指“正确的”, 指某人或某事合乎事实或公认的标准或规则,没有错误

如: He gave correct answers to the questions. 他对这些问题提出了正确的答案。 correct vt. 改正;纠正 Please correct this mistake. 请改正这个错误。

exact 表示“确切的”,“精确无误的”,指“与事实完全相符”, 语气较accurate强,指某人或某事数量或质量完全符合事实或标准,而且在细致末节上也丝毫不差。如: His answer is quite exact. 他的回答完全正确。

The exact date of the event has escaped me. 我记不起这起事件的确切日期了。

proper含有生来就具备适宜性质的含义,还表示某物具有它应当具备的性质。如:do sth. the proper way

以适当的方式做某事

Appropriate“正确的;适当的”,指适合于特殊的人及场合,地位等。强调自然具备适宜的性质。如: an appropriate example 适当的例子

fit意为某人或某物在目的上用途上适合。如:Your clothes fit well. 你的衣服很合身。

The trousers don't fit him, they are too small. 这条裤子他穿不合身,太小了。

This coat's a beautiful fit to you. 这件外衣对你非常合身。He runs to keep fit. 他跑步为了保持健康。

suitable意味着适合某种情况。如:This toy is not suitable for young children. 这个玩具不适合小小孩玩。

This wine is not suitable to my taste. 这酒不合我的胃口。

12.approve vt., vi. Approved—approving 批准;认可;通过 [反意词disapprove]

approve 属常用词, 表示“官方或正式批准”, 用于上级对下级, 长辈对晚辈, 如: My father approved my going to the border regions. 我父亲同意我去边区。

My parents don't approve of me smoking cigarettes. 我的父母不准许我吸烟。

The resolution was approved 82 to 16 with 18 abstentions. 决议以八十二票对十六票通过,十八票弃权。

The mayoress approved the new building plans. 女市长批准了新建筑计划。

(常与of连用)赞成,赞同 I don't approve of wasting time. 我不赞成浪费时间。

I don't approve of smoking. 我不赞成抽烟。

Her father will never approve of her marriage to you. 他父亲永远不会同意她和你结婚。

13.process n. (大自然的)作用,活动 the process of breathing 呼吸作用

步骤 the process of learning to read

学习阅读的步骤 The firm is now in the process of moving the main equipment to a new place. 公司目前正在把主要设备迁到新地址去。

过程 the process of digestion

vt. 加工(食品等);冲洗 One has to process a photographic film to print pictures from it. 必须先处理照相底片才能冲印出相片。

〈计〉处理 ;小心准备;仔细检查

The plans are now being processed. 计划现正在审查。

14.intention n. 计划;目的

I began reading with the intention of finishing the book, but I never did. 我开始读这本书时想读完它,可是我从来就没把它读完。

He has no intention of marrying yet. 他还没有要结婚的打算。

What is your intention? 你的意图究竟是什么?

【习惯用语】

by intention 故意

have no intention of doing ... 无意做... the intention of a clause 条款的意旨

with the intention of 抱有...目的, 打算

with the best of intentions 好心好意, 出于一片好心

without intention 无意中, 不是故意地.如:If I've hurt your feelings, it was quite without intention. 如果我伤了你的感情那完全是无意的。

15.ahead of adv., adj. 在前;向前;提前

Walk straight ahead until you reach the river. 一直朝前走到河边。

The road ahead was full of cattle. 前面的路上挤满了牛群。

Owing to our joint efforts, the task was fulfilled ahead of time. 由于我们的共同努力,任务提前完成了。

【习惯用语】

be ahead [美口]占优势, 可望取胜; 赢钱, 赚钱

ahead of 在...前头; 早于; 超过。如:ahead of time [schedule] 提前

Go ahead! 前进, 有进展; 继续干下去

16.employ vt. Employed—employing 雇用;使用

The firm employs about 100 men. 这家公司大约雇了100人。

This motor plant is employing three thousand workers. 这家汽车工厂雇用着三千员工。

The firm employs the retired professor as an adviser. 这家公司聘这们退休的教授担任顾问。

She employs her time wisely. 她善于利用时间。

【习惯用语】

in the employ of 被…雇用。如:I have been for over five years in the employ of an exporting company. 本人曾经前后五年被受雇于出口贸易公司。

in sb.'s employ 受...雇用。如:The company should aid those in its employ in everything..

out of employ 失业。如:Because of the typhoon “Saomai (桑美)”, many of the workers are out of employ.

employ oneself in 从事于, 时间花在... He employed himself (in) teaching English. 他从事英语教学工作。

employ oneself on 从事于, 时间花在...

employ oneself doing 从事于, 时间花在...

employ... as 把...用作。如:He employed the girl as a typist.他雇用那位小姐当打字员。

Employ English as a common language.把英语当作共同语言使用。

▲hire /employ/rent

hire解作“雇用”时与employ同义,但用法稍有不同。hire是一般用法,指普通的雇用,可用于人或物,如:hire a servant、hire Whe hire a taxi downtown. 我们乘计程汽车入市区。

employ是较正式的用语,一般指大公司聘用职员,如 employ a teacher、employ a clerk、employ a manager等。

rent只可用于物件(尤其建筑物类),如:

The holiday-makers rented a jeep for their journey. 那些度假人士租用一辆吉普车去旅行。

Unable to afford a flat,the newly-weds have to rent a room. 那对新婚夫妇因买不起一套房子而只好租住一个房间。

17.cover vt. (常与with连用)盖;覆盖

She covered the table with a cloth. 她用一块布把桌子罩起来。 be covered with snow all the year round 终年积雪

占(时间或空间) The town covers 5 square miles. 小镇占地5平方英里。

行过(路程);通过 I want to cover 100 miles by dark. 我想在天黑之前走完100英里。

报导;对…进行新闻采访 cover a fire for a newspaper 为报纸采访失火的新闻

包括;包含;论及 The review covered everything we learned last term. 这次复习包括上学期我们所学的全部课程。His studies covered a wide field. 他的知识渊博。

【习惯用语】

be covered with 盖满,覆满 充满(羞惭,慌乱等),不胜...

from cover to cover 从头到尾一页不漏

under the cover of 在...掩 护下; 打着...的幌子

cover up 完全盖住, 盖好

cover n. 遮盖物 盖子;罩子 (图书、杂志的)封面

The book had a blue cover. 这本书有一个蓝色的封面。

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