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人教新课标必修五第一单元重难点解析

来源:101教育网整理 2015-05-14 字体大小: 分享到:

一、重点单词用法精解

1. characteristic n. 特征,特性

The chief characteristic of human being is that they can think. 人类主要的特征是他们会思考。

2. expose vt. 暴露,揭发,曝光(摄影)

Don’t expose the baby to the burning sun. 切勿将小孩曝晒。

注:expose sb/sth to…中的to为介词。

3. defeat vt. & n. 击败;战胜;

The army defeated the enemy in the end. 军队最终战胜了敌军。

Tom suffered the defeat in the English examination. 汤姆英语考试失败了。

辨析:win的宾语是game, prize等物(不是人);beat和defeat的宾语是人;hit“打一下”; beat“(连续地)打”;strike “重击”。

4. cure vt. & n. 治愈,治疗法

There is no known cure for AIDS. 还无治疗艾滋病之法。

It is possible to cure the sickness. 治愈这种疾病还是可能的。

辨析:cure“治愈”,强调结果;treat“治疗”,强调动作过程;说cure sb of sth. 但说treat sb for sth.

5. blame vt. 责备,归咎

The teacher blamed me for my being late for school again. 老师因我又迟到批评了我。

注:blame sb for sth=blame sth on sb.

6. backward adj. & adv. 向后

We turn backward(s) then rightward(s). 我们向后转然后向右转。

搭配:a backward turn 向后转

7. conclude vt. & vi. 结束,总结

The teacher concluded the class by one sentence. 老师以一句话总结了这节课。

二、重要词组句型例析

1.in addition 此外

In addition, the speaker gave us more information about the topic. 另外,这个演讲者就主题给了我一些信息。

注:in addition to(=besides)是短语介词,后接名词、代词和动名词。

I visited many places in addition to the Great Wall. 我参观了许多地方,除了长城以外。

2. apart from除……以外(except for);除……外,还有(besides)

Apart from being short, Tom is smart. 除了个子矮了点,Tom还是挺帅气的。

Apart from the cost, it will take a lot of time. 除了花费钱以外,它还需要不少时间。

3. be strict with sb. 对某人严格

Father is always strict with his sons. 父亲对子女经常要求严格。

比较:be strict in sth. 对某事物要求严格

Teachers are strict in students’ homework. 老师对学生的作业要求严格。

4. lead to 导致,通向(to为介词)

Hard work leads to success. 努力通向成功。

All roads lead to Rome. 条条道路通罗马。

5.link…to… 将……和……连接起来

Can you link the clues to the criminals? 你能把线索和罪犯联系起来吗?

6. keep sb /sth +doing /done /adj. 让某人或事物做……

I’m sorry to have kept you waiting so long. 对不起,让你久等了。

You must keep your jewels locked up. 你得把珠宝饰物锁好。

Keep the classroom clean. 要保持教室清洁。(adj.作宾补)

注:用doing强调与sb/sth是主动关系且与谓语动词是同时或一直进行的;用done强调与sb/sth是被动关系且业已完成;用adj.强调sb/sth的状态。

三、课文长句难句剖析

1. In addition, he found two other deaths in another part of London that were linked to the Broad Street outbreak.

剖析:句中的that引导一个定语从句,修饰先行词two other deaths;先行词与定语从句之间被介词短语in another part of London所分隔。

译文:除此之外,他发现在伦敦的另一个地方有两个与the Broad Street爆发的霍乱有关的死亡病例。

2. To prevent this from happening again, John Snow suggested that the source of all water supplies be examined and new methods of dealing with polluted water be found.

剖析:To prevent为表示目的的不定式短语;prevent…(from) doing sth 意为“阻止……做某事”,其中prevent可与stop, keep互换;suggest表示“建议”的,其宾语从句的谓语用“should +动词原形”,句中的should被省略了。

译文:为了防止这种情况的再次发生,John Snow建议所有的水源都要经过检测,而且要寻找处理污水的新方法。

四、语法知识归纳梳理——过去分词的用法

1. 构成:done(规则动词的过去分词与过去式变化相同,都是在动词原形后加ed, 如:print—printed—printed; follow—followed—followed; 不规则动词的过去分词需要记忆, 如:begin—began—begun;ea—tate—eaten)

2. 意义:完成、被动

(1)不及物动词的过去分词表示完成的状态,不表被动意义,如:fallen leaves(落叶),fall为不及物动词,此处只表示落叶的状态;

(2)及物动词的过去分词表示被动和完成,如:polluted water(污水),pollute为及物动词,water 和pollute之间是被动关系且动作业已完成。

3. 语法功用

在句中作定语、表语、宾语补足语和状语。不能单独作谓语。

(1)作定语:过去分词如是单个词语,则位于中心词前;如是短语,则位于中心词后,作后置定语。如:

Many terrified people died in turmoil. 很多受惊的人死于荒乱之中。

试题:Don’t use words, expressions, or phrases____ only to people with specific knowledge. (上海)

A being known B having been known C to be known D known

解析: words, expressions, phrases与know在逻辑上是被动关系,要用过去分词短语作定语,故选D。

(2)作表语:用在系动词后。如:

I am interested in reading English novels. 我对阅读英国小说感兴趣。

My teacher got annoyed when I was late for school again. 我上学又迟到,老师为此很恼怒。

(3)作宾语补足语:用在宾语后面。如:

I had my dress washed already. 我已经把衣服洗了。

注:能带过去分词作宾语补足语的动词还有:get, hear, see, make, keep, find等。如:

I found the door broken. 我发现门坏了。

试题:Laws that punish parents for their children’s against the laws get parents_____. (重庆)

A worried B to worry C worrying D worry

解析:“使得家长们感到担心”,用过去分词作宾语补足语,选A。

(4)作状语:一般置于句首或句末。

The teacher came into the classroom, followed by some students. 老师和几位同学走进教室。(the teacher与follow是被动关系)

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