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高中英语常见近义词辨析

来源:101教育网整理 2015-05-14 字体大小: 分享到:

1. imagine vt. form a picture of in the mind;think of (sth.) as probable:想象;认为(某事)可能发生或存在。宾语为名词、代词、动名词、从句。宾语从句为否定意义时,要用否定转移,与think, believe, suppose, expect用法相同,成为I/ We don’t imagine…,意为“我(们)认为……不……如:We can imagine her sadness.我们可以想象她的悲伤。I didn’t imagine (my) becoming a teacher in my childhood.在童年时代,我并未想象能成为一名教师。Can you imagine how much I was surprised to hear the news?你能想象我听见这个消息有多惊讶吗?I don’t imagine so. = I imagine not.我认为不是这样。

imagine, guess, suppose

imagine意为“想象,幻想”,指在脑海中形成一个清晰明确的印象,或认为某事物可能发生或存在;

guess: form an opinion, give an answer, make a statement, based on supposition, not on careful thought, calculation, or definite knowledge: “猜测,臆测”,指未知道前的猜测;

suppose: let it be though that; take it as a fact that:认定,假定; guess; think: “想象,推测”,意指“假定或假设中的情形”。

2. shake, tremble

shake: move, be moved, quickly or violently up and down, forwards and backwards: 最普通用词,可指人或物 “摇动,发抖”。指人时常用于感情激动、寒冷、惧怕引起的身体颤动。在表示 “因……而颤抖”时,多用with。在表示 “使受震撼,使(信念等)动摇”,常用于be shaken by/with/at中。

tremble: shake involuntarily ( with fear, anger, cold, physical weakness, etc.) 颤栗,震颤,发抖(因恐惧,愤怒,寒冷,体弱等),常常与shake相互替换,但指握手,摇头或捧腹大笑时用 shake, tremble只用作不及物动词。如:The poor boy was shaking with cold.这个孩子正冻的发抖。They were badly shaken by the news.他们对这个消息大为震惊。The host shook hands with all the guests.主人跟所有的客人握手。Her voice was trembling with anger.她气的声音发抖。

3. rise, raise

rise vi. ( of the sun, moon, stars, river, price, temperature, etc.) appear above the horizon:指自然“上升”,常用于日、月、云、霞、烟、水蒸气、物价、温度、河水、潮水及人的职位等:He rose from his chair and began his speech.他从椅子上站起来开始了他的演说。Her temperature is still rising.他的体温还在上升。He has risen in rank.他已经升职了。

raise vt. 1. lift up; move from a low(er) to a high(er) level; cause to rise: 外部的力量,“举起、提高”: The people’s living standard has greatly been raised.人民的生活水平已大大的提高了。 2.grow or produce (crops); breed (sheep, etc.); bring up a family: 饲养、种植”、养育、抚育: They can raise rice here.他们这儿能种水稻。

4. burst into / burst out : send out suddenly; break out into; suddenly begin to ……

burst into + doing: She burst into tears. = She burst out crying.她突然哭起来了。

burst out + n.:All of them burst into laughter = All of them burst out laughing.他们全都大笑起来了。

5. destroy, ruin, damage

destroy: break to pieces; make useless; put an end to: 毁灭;摧毁;毁坏;破坏。表示在肉体上、精神上或道义上彻底摧毁,使之无法复原,也可以表示对某物体进行完全的毁坏: All his hopes were destroyed.他所有的希望都毁灭了。An atom bomb would destroy a city. 一颗原子弹可以摧毁一座城市。

ruin: sth. which has decayed, been destroyed, etc.:败坏,毁坏,崩溃的状态。 指对物体或生命彻底的破坏,但往往是非暴力的,也往往不是一次的打击结果,常指对美好的或希望中的事物的破坏: Smoking ruined his health.吸烟毁了他的健康。She ruined his prospects.她毁了他的前途。

damage: harm or injury that causes loss of value: 损害;损毁(使失去价值)。一般指对物体或生命的局部损坏:Their houses were damaged by the enemy’s shellfire.他们的房屋被敌人的炮火击毁了。

6. hurt, wound, injure

hurt: cause bodily injury or pain to; damage; pain ( a person, his feeling): 使受伤;使疼痛;伤害; 使伤心。一般用语,即可指肉体上的伤害,也可指精神上的伤害,还可用作不及物动词,意为“疼痛、惹起痛苦”: What he said hurt me deeply.他说的话使我非常伤心。

wound: hurt or injury to the living tissue of the body, caused by cutting, shooting, tearing, etc., esp. as the result of attack: 指外伤,如枪伤、刀伤、剑伤,尤指在战争中,战斗中受伤: He got wounded in the fighting.他在战斗中受了伤。

injure: hurt; damage, esp. for result of an accident;一般指由于意外或事故而受伤。如:He was badly injured in the accident.他在这次事故中受了重伤。Smoking will injure your health.吸烟会毁了你的健康。

7. shock, astonish, surprise

shock vt./n: to cause usually unpleasant or angry surprise to (sb.): 震惊,打击,吃惊程度最大,后面常跟介词at/by构成词组be shocked at/by,表示“对……吃惊”,或接不定式表示原因,也可作名词,意为“震动,打击”: He was shocked by what you said.他对你说的话感到震惊。He was shocked to know his son playing all day.他知道他的儿子整天玩大为震惊。The news gave me a great shock.这个消息给了我很大的打击。

astonish vt./n: surprise greatly. 语气比surprise要强,含有令人难以置信: I was astonished to see him in Tibet.在西藏见到他,真感到惊异。The news astonished everyone.这个消息使每个人都很震惊。

surprise vt./n: (feeling caused by) sth. sudden or unexpected: 最普通用词,意为“使惊讶,使吃惊”,含有“意想不到”之意。如: I was surprised to see the great changes in my hometown.看到家乡的巨大变化他惊讶不已。His failure didn’t cause much surprise (was not a great surprise.)他的失败未引起很大的惊奇(并非很意外的事)。

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