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高一英语上册知识点:Unit1-6

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Unit 1 Good friends

1. be loyal to 对……忠诚

2. It is + adj.(表批评或赞扬) + of sb. to do sth. = sb. + be adj. to do sth. 某人做某事是……

e.g. It is kind of you to say so.= You are kind to say so.

3. A good friend is someone who makes me happy.

make /find +object. +adj. e.g. make our classroom clean; find it useful make sb. do (sth.) = have sb. do sth. = get sb. to do sth.

4. argue with / against sb. argue about / over / on sth. argue with sb. about / over sth.

argue sb. into/out of +n. 说服某人做/停止做某事

5. solve the problem 解决问题 solution (名词)

6. especially “尤其;特别地”,用来加强语气,常用于所强调的主语、介词短语、形容词及when引导的从句之前。

7. give reasons for sth. 为某事给出原因

8. so / neither / nor + 助动词 / 系动词 / 情态动词+主语(+动词) 表示与前面情况相同 so+主语+助动词/系动词/情态动词 表示对前面所说情况的赞成或认同 e.g. ①I don’t like enjoy singing, nor / neither do I like computers. ②Rock music is OK, and so is skiing. ③ - He works very hard. - So he does.

9. hate vt. 憎恶,憎恨;厌恶,很不喜欢,句型为:hate sth. / sb.;hate doing / to do sth.;hate sb. doing / to do sth.

10. be into =be fond of 对某事有兴趣,喜欢……

11. surf the Internet= go on the Internet 上网

12. all the time 一直,始终

13. imagine doing sth. 想像做某事

14. alone adj. 单独的,独自的(只能作表语)

adv. 单独地 e.g. ①She watches TV when she is alone. 独自一人时,她便看电视。

②For years Mary lived alone in New York. 玛丽孤身一人在纽约生活了好几年。

lonely adj. 1. 孤独的,孤寂的 2. 偏僻的,人迹罕至的 (既可作表语,也可作定语)

15. play = act e.g. Tom Hanks plays a man named Chuck Noland.

16. so...that... 如此……以至于……,that在此引导结果状语从句(有时可能省略)

so + adj. / adv. + that… so + adj. + a(n) + n + that… so few /many + 复数名词 + that… so much /little+不可数名词 + that…

so加形容词或副词置于句首引起倒装

区别:such + a(n) + adj. + n. + that… such + adj. +不可数名词/复数名词(注:这里的adj.不能是many, much, few, little,如果加这些形容词,用so…that…)

17. One day Chuck is on a flight across the Pacific Ocean when suddenly his plane crashes.

When(= at that time/at that moment)是一个并列连词的作用,表示前一个动作正在进行时突然发生此事。多用于句型:be doing…when…,be about to do …when…,句中is on a flight等于is flying。例如:①He is about to go when the telephone rang。她正要出去这时电话铃响了。 ②I was walking on the street yesterday when I saw an old friend。昨天正在街上走着忽然碰上一个老朋友。

18. a deserted island 荒岛

19. survive: continue to live or exist 幸存;活下来

e.g. Her parents died in the SARS epidemic, but she survived. 她的双亲在“非典”流行时去世,但是她幸存下来。

20. all alone = all by oneself 独自地;完全靠自己;独立地

21. hunt for 搜索;追寻;寻找

22. make (a) fire 生火

23. in order to 为了……

e.g. We started early in order to arrive before dark.为了在天黑前到达,我们很早就动身了

1) so as to…= in order to...,但前者一般不用于句首 2) 否定式在to前加not 3) 相应的目的状语从句由so that...或in order that...引导

24. develop a friendship with sb. 与某人发展友谊

25. even though=even if 即使

26. treat…as… 把……看作……

27. realize(realize) vt. 认识;明白;实现。

例: ① I didn't realize this until you told me. 直到你告诉了我才认识到这一点。

②Finally I realized what he meant.最后我明白了他的意思。

③ In the end he realized his hope for being an artist. 最后他实现了当艺术家的意愿。

28. share happiness and sorrow 同甘共苦

share vt.& vi.分担;分享;共同具有/使用

1)share vt. 常跟名词作宾语,构成的搭配有:share sth. with sb.与某人共享。

例: ①They share all housework, including washing, cooking and looking after their child.他们分担所有家务,包括洗衣,做饭,看孩子。

2)share vi. 搭配是: share in...共享……

例: ②She shares in my troubles as well as my joys. 她与我同甘共苦。

3)share n. "一份","份额"

例: ③We must do our share for

our country. 我们必须为国家做出一份贡献。

29. care about 关心,介意,在乎 e.g. It is important to have someone to care about.

care for 喜欢;照顾 e.g. ①I don’t care for football. ②Would you care for a cup of tea? ③She cares for her sick mother.

30. should have done 本该做……(而实际上没有做),常含有责备的意味。

31. make friends with sb. 和某人交朋友

(注意friends〈复数〉)

32. for example 介词短语,为插入语,可置于句首、句中或句末,用逗号隔开,一般只以同类人或同类事物中的“一个”为例。

such as 列举同类人或同类事物中的几个例子,放在被列举的事物或名词之前,as不加逗号。

33. learn a lesson from sb. 接受教训

34. tell lies/a lie 撒谎,为固定搭配

35. regard …as… 把……当作 be regarded as

e.g. Many people keep dogs as pets because dogs are regarded as loyal friends to people.

36. make a difference有差别;有关系

make no difference没有差别;无关紧要 make a great difference 区别很大;有很大关系

37. You guessed it!

38. have fun玩得愉快 fun n.[U]娱乐,乐趣;玩笑,嬉戏;有趣的人(或事物) for / in fun 闹着玩地,不当真地

39. drop sb. a line给某人写短信

40. keep...in mind 记住

41. as short as possible 尽可能简洁

42. laugh at / make fun of / play a joke on 取笑;嘲笑

43. in one’s opinion 依……看来,依……之见

语法:

直接引语和间接引语(1)

当说话人引用别人的话时,可以用别人的原话,也可以用自己的话把别人意思转述出来,引用原话,称为直接引语(Direct Speech),否则称为间接引语(Indirect Speech)。直接引语通常用引号(“”)括起来,间接引语在多数情况下都构成一个宾语从句。(课本P178)

e.g. Lao Yang said: “I’m not free. ”(直接引语)

Lao Yang said that he wasn’t free .(间接引语)

1. 如果引用的句子原来是一个陈述句,在间接引语中我们要注意下面几点:

(1)在引语的开头用连词that,有时可以省略

He said, “Mother, the boy is very naughty.” He told his mother (that) the boy was very naughty.

(2)根据意思改变人称

She said (to me), “Your pronunciation is better than mine. She said that my pronunciation was better than hers.

(3)注意间接引语中的谓语动词时态的变化

“Frank, I came to return you the book,” Henry said. Henry told Frank that he had come to return the book.

Kitty said, “I’ll call again after supper.” Kitty said that she would call again after supper.

(4)根据意思将指示代词,地点及时间状语作必要的更动

She said, “I will come here again tonight.” She said (that) she would go there again that night.

2. 直接引语是一个疑问句变间接引语时,除了注意人称、状语等的变更和时态一致之外,还要注意:

(1)把疑问句语序变为陈述句语序,也就是说要把主语放在谓语的前面。

He asked, “How are you getting along?” He asked us how we were getting along.

(2)在这种引语前“that”是永远也不能用的。如果是一般疑问句、选择疑问句或反意疑问句,在引语前要用连词whether或if。

He asked, “Are you a Party member or a League member?” He asked me whether I was a Party member or a League member.

“You’ve already got well , haven’t you ?” she asked. She asked whether(if)he had already got well .

选择疑问句不用if,只用whether(whether…or…搭配,一般不用if)

(3)如果是特殊疑问句,仍用其疑问词作为连接词来引导从句。

3. 在时态变化时,要注意如果直接引语是客观真理或客观事实,变为间接引语时,时态不用改变。

4. 一般在引述陈述句的间接引语时,用动词said, told;在引述疑问句时,一般用asked, said, wondered等。

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