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高一英语知识点:高频率介词搭配

来源:101教育网整理 2015-05-14 字体大小: 分享到:

一、ABOUT

1.动词+about+sth.。about在此表示“论及,谈起,涉及,着手”等意思:arrange about安排,argue about辩论, ask about询问,bring about带来,chat about闲聊,care about在意,complain about报怨,go about着手,hear about听说, inquire about打听,know about了解, quarrel about争论,read about读到, see about负责处理,set about开始, speak about谈起, talk about谈论, think about考虑, trouble about担心,tell about讲述,worry about着急。现举例说明其中一些短语的用法:

She inquired about my brother. 她向我打听有关我兄弟的情况。

I must set about my packing. 我必须开始收拾行装。

What are you chatting about? 你们在聊什么呢?

2. be +形容词+about+sth.。about在此意思是“为…,对…”,接表原因的词:be anxious about为…着急, be bad about对…感到不舒服,be busy about忙于…, be careful about小心…, be certain about对…有把握, be concerned about关心…, be crazy about为…发狂,be excited about为…感到激动, be happy about为…而高兴, be mad about为…发疯,be nervous about对…感到紧张, be particular about挑剔…, be pleased about为…兴奋,be strict about对…严格,be thoughtful about对…考虑周到的,be uneasy about为…感受到不安。请看例句:

What have you been busy about today? 今天在忙些什么?

You are certainly very thoughtful about others. 你为别人想得太周到了。

I’m strict about such things. 对这些事我是很严格的。

注:come about发生,get about(疾病、谣言)流行,turn about转身,leave about到处乱放,lie about随便堆放,put about打扰;传播,put oneself about使…发愁。这些词组中about作副词,此时about不能接宾语。

二、AFTER

1.动词+ after。介词after有“追赶,问候,效仿”之意:ask after问候, be after寻求, do(sth.)after学着做,go after设法得到, inquire after问候, look after寻找, run after追求, seek after追逐, take after长得像。例如:

Every afternoon he called to ask after his girl friend. 他每天下午都打电话问候他的女朋友。

The boy takes after his father. 这男孩长得像他父亲。

The dogs went after the wounded deer. 一群狗在追赶那只受伤的鹿。

2.after构成的其它短语。after在不同的短语中意思各异: after a little/moment/while过了一会,after all毕竟,after dark天黑以后,after one’s heart合…的心, after school放学后, after service售后服务,after the fashion勉强, day after day日复一日,one after another一个接一个,year after year年复一年。例如:

Don’t be too strict with him. After all he is still a child. 不要太苛刻了,毕竟他还是个孩子。

He can speak and write English after a fashion. 他多少会说和写一点英语,但不太好。

三、AT

1.动词+ at。at表示“指向某一目标,到达某地”:arrive at抵达, call at访问某地, catch at(it)当场抓住, come at攻击, fire at向…开火, glance at瞟一眼, glare at怒目而视, grieve at忧伤,knock at敲, laugh at嘲笑, look at看一眼, pull at拉扯, rejoice at对…高兴,smile at向某人微笑, shoot at朝…射击, stare at怒目而视, thrust at刺向, tear at撕, tremble at颤抖,wonder at吃惊,work at工作。

例如:

Don’t let me catch you again at it.不要再让我当场逮住你。

We must “shoot the arrow at the target”. 我们必须有的放矢。

They trembled at the sight of the peasant’s spears. 看到农民的梭标,他们阵阵发抖。

2. be +形容词/过去分词+ at。其中at表示“情绪、情感的原因,或对某物具有某种感情”:be angry at恼怒于, be alarmed at对…保持警觉, be astonished at对…吃惊, be bad at不擅长, be clever at对某事很灵巧, be delighted at高兴,be disgusted at厌恶, be disappointed at对…失望,be good at擅长, be impatient at对…不够耐心, be mad at狂热于, be pleased at对…感到高兴, be present at出席, be satisfied at满意, be surprised at吃惊, be shocked at对…非常震惊,be terrified at受到…的恐吓, be quick at对…很机敏。例如:

They were overjoyed at his return to work. 他们对他重返工作感到欣喜。

They are alarmed at the growth of the liberation movement in the colonies. 他们对殖民地日益壮大的解放运动警觉起来。

3.at+名词构成的词组:at a distance在一定距离,at a loss不知所措,at a time一次,at all一点也不,at any cost不惜一切代价,at best最好也只是,at first起初,at hand手头,at heart在内心里,at home在家;无拘束,at last最后,at least至少,at most最多,at once马上,at present目前,at sea不知所措,at times有时,at will任意地,at work起作用,at worst最坏。

4.其它含有at的短语:work hard at勤奋工作,drop in at顺路拜访。

四、FOR

1.动词+for

a)动词+for。for表原因、目的:account for解释;说明, answer for对…负责, apply for申请;请求, apologize for为…而道歉, beg for请求, call for要求, care for在意, enter for报名参加, fight for为…而战, hope for希望, inquire for查询;求见, leave for离开某地到另一地, look for寻找, long for盼望, mistake for误认为, plan for计划做某事, prepare for为…作准备, provide for为…提供, reach for伸手去拿, run for竞选, stand for象征, search for搜寻, send for派人去请, speak for陈述意见、愿望, take for当作, wish for希望, wait for等待。例如:

His illness accounts for his absence. 他因病缺席。

The baby reached for the apple but couldn’t reach it. 那婴儿伸手去苹果,但够不着。

He who would search for pearls must dive below. 要想找到珍珠,必须潜到海底。

b)动词+sb.+ for +sth.。for表示原因或目的:ask for要求得到, blame for因…责备, excuse for宽恕, forgive for谅解, pardon for原谅, pay for花钱买, praise for称赞, punish for对…进行惩罚, push for催逼,reward for酬谢, thank for对…表示谢意。例如:

Please excuse me for my being late. 请原谅我的迟到。

Forgive me for my keeping you waiting. 请见谅,让你久等了。

2. be +形容词+for。for表作用、目的、对人或物有某种情绪等:be anxious for急于做, be eager for渴望, be bad for有害于, be convenient for便于, be good for利于, be famous for以…出名, be fit for适合于, be grateful for对…心存感激, be impatient for对…不耐烦, be late for迟到, be necessary for有必要, be ready for作好准备, be sorry for为…而后悔, be responsible for对…负责, be suitable for适合于, be unfit for不适合, be useful for对…有作用。例如:

He is eager for success. 他渴望成功。

The government is responsible for the nation’s welfare. 政府负责民众的福利。

3.for+名词构成的词组:for all尽管,for a song非常便宜地,for certain确切地,for company陪着,for ever永远,for example例如,for fear以免,for fair肯定地,for free免费,for fun为了好玩,for good永远,for instance比方,for luck祝福,for life终身,for long长久,for nothing白白地,for once有生第一次,for oneself替自己,for pleasure为了消遣,for reason因为…理由,for sale供出售,for shame真不害臊,for short简称,for sport好玩,for sure确切地。

4.动词+副词/名词+for构成的短语:be in for将遇到,make up for弥补,go in for从事,l o ok out for提防,take sth. for granted把…当作理所当然, have an ear for音感好, have a gift for有某方面的天赋。

五、FROM

1.动词+from

a)动词+ from。from表示“来源、原因、起始”等:come from来自, date from追溯, depart from违背, die from死于, escape from逃出, fall from自…跌落, hang from垂挂, hear from收到来信, learn from向某人学习, return from自某地返回,rise from自…冒出, result from起因于, suffer from忍受。

例如:

All the characters in the book are drawn from real life. 书中所有的人物都来自于真实的生活。

Any damage resulting from negligence must be paid for by the borrower. 因疏忽引起的任何损坏都应由借用者负责赔偿。

He has recovered from his surprise. 他好不容易回过神来。

b)动词+ sth./sb. +from + sth./ sb. /a place。from表示“来源、免于”等:borrow from向…借, choose from选自, excuse from免除, keep from阻止做, prevent from不准做, protect from不受…之害, receive from收到, remove from移动;除去, save from保全;拯救, separate from分离开来, stop from阻止。例如:

He was excused from attendance at the lecture. 他获准可不去听课。

Stop the child from spoiling the book. 不要让孩子弄坏了书。

2. be +形容词+ from。

此时from含义众多:be absent from缺席, be different from与众不同, be far from更不用说, be hidden from躲避, be made from用…制成, be tired from因…而疲倦。例如:

The boy can’t walk and is far from running.那男孩不会走路,更不用说跑了。

3.from…to…。

本短语表示从一种状态到另一状态的变化或从…到…:from bad to worse每况愈下,from beginning to end自始至终,from cover to cover从头到尾,from China to Peru到处,from day to day一天一天地,from door to door挨家挨户,from end to end从头至尾,from first to last自始至终,from hand to mouth勉强糊口,from head to foot从头到脚,from mouth to mouth广泛流传,from sun to sun从日出到日落,from start to finish从头开始,from top to toe从头到脚,from time to time不时地,from top to bottom彻底地。

六、IN

1.动词+in

a)动词+ in。in在短语中的含义异常丰富:believe in信任, break in碎成,bring in引起;产生;带来, call in下令收回, fill in填充,get in收获, hand in上缴, involve in涉及, lie in在于, result in导致, share in共享, succeed in成功, take in卷起;订阅, turn in归还当局。例如:

He was so short of money that he had to call in the loans that he had made. 他很缺乏资金,不得不收回所有的款子。

Your failure lies in your laziness. 你失败的原因在于懒惰。

Orders are given to take in sail.已发布收帆的命令。

b)动词+sb./time/money+ in。介词in后接(doing)sth.:help sb. in帮助某人做某事, spare time/money in匀出时间或钱做某事, spend time/money in花时间或钱做某事, waste time/money in浪费时间或钱做某事。例如:

She offered to help him in the housekeeping when I am not here. 她提出,我不在家时她可以帮助他料理家务。

2. be +形容词+ in。

in表示“在某些方面或穿着”:be active in活跃于, be absorbed in专心致志, be busy in忙碌, be born in出生于, be concerned in牵涉, be clothed in穿着, be disappointed in对…失望, be diligent in勤于, be experienced in在…有经验, be employed in任职于, be engaged in忙碌, be expert in某方面的教师, be excellent in在…优秀, be interested in对…有兴趣, be lacking in缺乏, be rich in富有, be slow in迟缓, be successful in在某方面成功, be skilled in精于, be strict in严于, be weak in弱于。例如:

She was completely absorbed in her own affairs. 她完全专注于自己的事务。

More than one person has been concerned in this. 不只一人牵涉到这件事。

3. in +名词。

in表示“处于某种状态或在某些方面”等意思:in advance提前,in all总共,in balance总而言之,in bed卧床,in body亲自,in brief简明扼要,in case万一, in charge主管,in danger有危险, in debt负债, in despair失望,in force大量地;有效,in full全部地, in flower开花,in general一般说来, in itself本身, in love恋爱, in order井然有序, in person亲自, in public公开地, in progress有进展, in practice从实践上看, in rags穿着破衣, in research探索, in return作为报答,in ruins一片废墟, in short总之,in theory从理论上看, in trouble有麻烦, in tears眼泪汪汪, in time及时, in turn按顺序, in vain白白地,in view看得见。

注意下列几个词组中的in为副词:check in到达登记,cut in插嘴,count in包括, draw in时间接近, drop in顺路拜访, give in屈服, pour in源源而来。

七、OF

1.动词+of

a)动词+of。of意为“有关,由于”: beg of(sb.)请求某人,complain of抱怨,consist of由…构成, die of死于, dream of梦想, hear of听说, know of了解, speak of谈及, tell of讲到, think of想起, talk of论及。

例如:

Never has one of them complained of all the trouble we give. 从来没有人抱怨我们带来这么多麻烦。

Carbon dioxide consists of carbon and oxygen. 二氧化碳由碳、氧两种元素组成。

b)动词+sb.+of+sth.。其中of有“剥夺,有关”之意:accuse of控告(谴责,非难)某人, cheat of骗走, deprive of剥夺, inform of汇报, rob of抢走, remind of提醒, warn of警告。例如:

He has cheated me of my poverty. 他骗走了我的财产。

They are deprived of their rights as citizens. 他们的公民权都被剥夺了。

c)动词+sth.+ of +sb.。介词of表动宾关系,后接动作的宾语sb.:request of请求(某人做某事), require of要求得到。例如:

All I request of you is that you should come here early. 我唯一的请求就是希望你早点来。

You have done all the law requires of you. 你做的这一切都是法律对你的要求。

2. be +形容词+ of。

of后接表对象或目标的词,这类短语有很多:be aware of觉察, be ashamed of以…为耻, be afraid of担心, be bare of没有, be careful of小心, be clear of还清债务, be certain of确信, be composed of由…构成, be envious of嫉妒, be forgetful of健忘, be fond of喜欢, be free of免于;摆脱, be full of充满, be guilty of认罪, be hopeful of抱有希望, be informed of汇报, be impatient of对…无耐心, be jealous of嫉妒, be made of用…制成, be mindful of留意, be proud of以…为骄傲, be sick of烦于, be short of缺乏, be sure of确信, be tired of困于, be worthy of值得。

3.of+名词构成的词组:

of age成年, of choice精选的,of course当然, of late最近,of name有名的,of oneself自动地,of purpose有意地,of use有用,of value有价值的。

八、ON

1.动词+on

a)动词+ on。介词on表示“凭借,产生某结果,接通”等意思:act on对…有作用, bring on促使;导致, call on拜访某人, count on依赖, carry on执行, depend on取决, feed on以…为生, figure on料想;推断, go on继续, have on穿着, insist on坚持, keep on继续, lean on依赖, live on以…为生, pull on迅速穿上, put on穿上, switch on接通(电源), take to喜欢;养成;轻易学会,turn on接通(电源), work on操作, wait on侍候。例如:

This kind of medicine acts on the heart. 这种药对心脏有好处。

The fine weather brings on the crops nicely. 好天气促使庄稼长势良好。

We count on you to help. 我们有赖你的帮助。

b)动词+sb.(sth.)+ on +sb.(sth.)。on的意思是“以…,对…,在某方面”:base on以…为基础, congratulate on恭贺, fix on固定, have mercy on怜悯, have pity on怜惜, keep watch on监视, spend on把时间、精力花在某方面。例如:

Theory should be based on practice. 理论联系实际。

Congratulate on your success in the competition. 恭喜你竞赛获得成功。

2.be+形容词+on的词组:

be dependent on依赖, be hard on对某人苛刻, be impressed on对…印象深刻, be keen on渴望, be strict on对…严格。例如:

We can’t just be dependent on our parents. 我们不能只依赖父母。

He is keen on going abroad. 他渴望出国。

3.on+名词构成的词组:

on表示处于某种状态或在某个方位:on board乘(车,飞机), on call听候召唤, on duty值班, on earth到底, on fire着火, on foot步行,on guard在岗,on hire雇用,on holiday度假,on leave休假,on one’s knees跪下, on one’s way在…的路上,on purpose故意, on sale待售,on shore在岸上, on time准时, on the move行动, on the other hand另一方面, on the spot当场, on the tip of one’s tongue快要说出口, on top of在…的顶部,on watch值班。

九、TO

1.动词+to

a)动词+ to。介词to意为“达到,指向”等:adjust to适应, attend to处理;照料, agree to赞同, amount to加起来达…,belong to属于, come to达到, drink to为…干杯,get to到达, happen to发生在某人身上, hold to紧握, lead to通向, listen to听, occur to想起, object to反对, point to指向, respond to回答, refer to参考;指的是…;涉及, reply to回答, see to负责, stick to坚持, turn to求助, write to给某人写信。

例如:

She must learn to adjust herself to English life. 她必须学会适应英国的生活。

Business has to be attended to. 有事要办。

An idea occurred to me. 我想出一个办法。

b)动词(+sth.)+to+sb.。下列动词不能直接带间接宾语sb.,要接间接宾语时须在动词后加介词to:announce to通知某人, describe to向某人描述, explain to向某人解释, express to对某人表达, mention to提及, nod to向某人点头, report to报告, say to告知, shout to对某人大叫, suggest to对某人提建议, speak to与某人交谈, talk to跟某人谈话, whisper to和某人低声耳语。例如:

She suggested to me one or two suitable people for the committee. 她跟我向委员会推举了一两个合适的人选。

c)动词+sth./sb.+ to +sth./sb.。此时介词to可译成“到,于,给”等意思:add to增加, compare to比作, carry to运送至, devote to致力于, introduce to介绍给, invite to邀请参加, join to连接到, leave to委托给, reduce to下降至, sentence to判处, take to带到。例如:

Please add a piece of candy to coffee. 请给咖啡加块糖。

Poets like to compare life to stage. 诗人喜欢把人生比作舞台。

2. be +形容词/过去分词+ to。

to的意思是“对…”:be alive to觉察;晓得, be attentive to注意;留心, be awake to知晓, be blind to缺乏眼光, be close to紧挨着, be common to对某人来说很普通, be contrary to违反;反对, be devoted to致力, be deaf to不愿意听, be equal to有…的力量, be exposed to暴露;遭受, be fair to对…公平, be familiar to对某人来说熟悉, be grateful to对某人心存感激, be good to对…有好处, be harmful to对…有危害, be important to对…重要, be kind to友好对待, be known to周知于, be married to嫁给, be moved to转移到, be near to靠近, be necessary to对…有必要, be opposite to在对面, be opposed to反对, be pleasant to合某人之意, be proper to专属, be polite to礼貌待人, be rude to粗暴对待, be relative to与…有关, be strange to不习惯, be similar to类似, be suitable to适合, be true to忠实, be thankful to感激, be useful to对…有用, be used to习惯。例如:

Are you alive to what is going on? 你注意到发生什么事了吗?

The old man was not equal to the situation. 那老人不能应付这种情况。

His house is opposite to mine. 他的房子在我的房子对面。

3.to+名词构成的词组有:

to a degree在某种程度上, to date到现在为止, to one’s feet跳起来,to one’s mind照…看来, to one’s surprise使…吃惊, to one’s taste符合胃口, to oneself独自享用, to order定做, to the letter不折不扣地, to the point中肯地。

十、WITH

1.动词+ with

a)动词+ with。with接对象或目标,意思为“与…,从…”:agree with同意;适应, begin with从…开始, continue with继续, do with应付, deal with对付, fight with与…作战, fool with愚弄, hurry with忙于, mix with与…混合在一起, meet with偶遇, play with把玩, quarrel with与某人争吵, reason with与某人评理, settle with与人协商。例如:

Let’s begin our class with an English song. 我们以一首英语歌开讲。

I meant to reason with you, but you won’t reason. 我本要与你理论理论,但你不愿意。

b)动词+ sth./sb. + with + sth./sb.。介词with意为“以,用”:compare with与…比较, combine with与…混合, equip with以…装备, feed with用…喂养, furnish with用…装饰, provide with提供, replace with以…替代, supply with供给。例如:

Education must be combined with productive labour.教育应与生产力相结合。

They replaced slave labour with machines. 他们用机器代替奴工。

2. be +形容词/过去分词+ with。

介词with表示情绪的原因、凭借等意思:be angry with恼怒, be annoyed with使烦恼, be busy with忙于, be bored with使烦心, be burdened with担负, be crowded with拥挤着, be connected with与…联系, be covered with覆盖着, be concerned with关心, be content with对…满意, be disappointed with失望于, be delighted with对…感到高兴, be engaged with忙碌于, be exhausted with由于…而极度疲倦, be filled with充满, be familiar with熟悉, be friendly with对…友好, be occupied with忙碌, be overcome with极为, be popular with受…欢迎, be patient with对…有耐心, be pleased with对…高兴, be satisfied with满意于, be strict with对…严格, be wrong with有毛病, be wild with因…而欣喜。例如:

He was much annoyed with his son’s behavior. 他对儿子的行为相当恼火。

I’m fully occupied with my daily work. 我忙碌于日常事务。

When he caught sight of her, he was overcome with despair. 看到她,他非常失望。

3.动词+副词/介词短语+with构成的词组:

catch up with赶上, do away with废除, fall in love with爱上, get together with与…联欢,keep in touch with保持联系,keep up with赶上。

综上所述,常用介词搭配在英语中极其丰富,意义复杂多变。掌握这些搭配,对夯实基础、提高英语阅读水平和理解能力是大有裨益的。

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