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高考英语语法全掌握之形容词和副词

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形容词和副词

一、考点聚焦

形容词、副词的作用与位置:形容词是用来修饰名词的,常被放在名词前作定语,或放在系动词后面作表语。而副词则用来修饰形容词、动词,其他副词或者句子,一般位于形容词之前,动词之后或

句子之首。

第一节:形容词

1、形容词的定义:形容词简称adv. 形容词简称adv.修饰v. adj.,其他adv.或全句的词,v.,adv.或全句的词修饰v.,adj.,其他adv.或全句的词,表示时间,地点,程度,方式等。表示时间,地

点,程度,方式等。

2、复合形容词的构成

(1)形容词+ 名词+ ed kind-hearted 好心的,white-haired 白发的

(2)形容词+ 形容词red-hot 炽热的,dark-blue 深蓝的

(3)形容词+ 现在分词good-looking 好看的,easy-going 随和的

(4)副词+ 现在分词hard-working 勤劳的,fast-moving 快速转动的

(5)副词+ 过去分词hard-won 得来不易的,newly-made 新建的

(6)名词+ 形容词life-long 终生的,world-famous 世界闻名的

(7)名词+ 现在分词peace-loving 爱好和平的,fun-loving 爱开玩笑的

(8)名词+ 过去分词snow-covered 白雪覆盖的,hand-made 手工的

(9)数词+ 名词+ ed four-storeyed 4 层楼的,three-legged 3 条腿的

(10)数词+ 名词(名词用单数)ten-year 10 年的,two-man 两人的

第二节:副词

什么是副词?

指出句中的副词:

1. You are standing near the camera.. Can you move a little farther? a little修饰副词“farther”表示程度 farther修饰动词“move”表示方式

2. Miss Long usually goes to school by bus. usually修饰动词goes,表示频度、频率

3. The two old passengers fell into the sea. Unfortunately, neither of them could swim. Unfortunately修饰整个句子

4. I won’t go with you. It’s much too hot today. much too修饰形容词,表示程度修饰形容词hot,修饰形容词

高考副词主要考点】

主要题型:选择填空,完形填空,改错

考点内容:

1. 副词词义辨析

(10浙江)Do you think shopping online will ____________ take the place of shopping in stores?

A.especially B.Frequently C.merely D.finally

解析:especially 特别,尤其;frequently经常;merely仅仅;finally最终

根据语境:你认为网上购物最终会替代商场购物吗?

(10湖北)I wasn’t blaming anyone; I ___________ said errors like this could be avoided.

A. merely B. mostly C. rarely D. nearly

解析:mostly 大部分地,通常地;nearly 几乎=almost;rarely 很少地,几乎不;merely 仅仅,只不过

全句意思:我并没有责怪任何人,我只是说类似这种错误是可以避免的” 说类似这种错误是可以避免的”。

2. 副词短语与习惯用语辨析

(09全国)It’s high time you had your hair cut; it’s getting .

A. too much long B. much too long C. long too much D. too long much

【解析】too much+不可数名词much too+形

(09天津)It was a nice house, but _______ too small for a family of five.

A. rarely B. fairly C. rather D. pretty

【解析】rather too 稍微,一点

全句意思:这房子不错,但对于五口之家还是稍微小了点

(2011全国)It is one thing to enjoy listening to good music, but it is______another to play it well yourself.

A. quite B. very C. rather D. much

【解析】quite another 另一回事

全句意思:喜欢听好音乐是一回事,但是自己演奏的好又是另一回事

3. 某些副词的位置

(10辽宁)We only had $100 and that was _______ to buy a new computer.

A.nowhere near enough B.near enough nowhere C.enough near nowhere D.near nowhere enough

【辨析】enough做副词时,修饰形容词或副词时应该放在被修饰词的后面adj/adv+enough nowhere near是固定短语,意思是“差得远;远不及” ,相当于一个形容词

4. 短文改错题

Unfortunate, there are too many people inmy family此处用副词作状语,修饰整个句子

adv怎么分类?

◆按意义分类1.普通副词2.疑问副词3.连接副词4.关系副词

普通副词可分为以下几类副词

1)时间副词:today今天yesterday昨天lately近来,最近next 下个如:next Sunday下周日 last…上个如:last week上周

确切的时间副词可放句末和句首They talked with Tom about it yesterday. Yesterday They talked with Tom about it.

2)频度副词:always总是usually通常often经常,总是,通常 sometimes 有时seldom/rarely 很少,有时never 从不 occasionally 偶尔,间或,从不constantly时常,不断地frequently

时常频繁地行为/实义

之前:①常位于行为实义之前:He seldom goes to the movies. 放在be动词,助动词和情态动词之后:动词②放在动词,助动词和情态动词之后:She is always acting like that.

3)地点副词:here 这里there那里everywhere到处anywhere任何地方inside在里面,往里面outside 在外面,向外面upstairs 在楼上,往楼上downstairs 在楼下,往楼下常放在谓语V之

后:He went away.

He lived abroad.

4)方式副词:slowly慢慢地happily幸福地,快乐地hard努力地,艰苦地quickly快,迅速地 sadly哀伤地,伤心地quietly悄悄地,安静地carefully认真地,小心地properly恰当地,正确地,

常放在被修饰的V之后

或放在句末He ran quickly. I can do it well.

5)程度副词:very非常much非常,很very much很,非常quite相当,非常,相当,,很rather相当little少so这么,那么,如此too太enough足够地,充分地hardly几乎不,简直不,常放在

被它修饰的adj.,

adv.或v.之前The book is very good. I almost believed his story.

6)语气副词:certainly当然obviously显然地,当然besides此外luckily/fortunately幸运地, 此外unlickily/unfortuntely不幸地语气副词常放句首,修饰全句,★语气副词常放句

首,修饰全句,表示强调说明,调说

明,或表示说话人的语气和态度Unfortunately, he won't be here tomorrow evening.

adv怎样构成?

1. 本身为adv.:ago, now, often, very等

2. 大多数的adv.由adj.加上后缀ly组成1)一般情况:slow-slowly, bad-badly 2)辅音字母结尾,y改为i再加ly happy-happily, angry-angrily 3)le结尾去掉e加y: single-singly

3. 有些adv.由介词或地点名词加后缀-ward (s)构成forward(s) backward(s)

4. 与adj同形的adv.:特别是以下几个:enough足够相当early早, fast快, 足够deep深地high高,向高处hard努力地,艰苦地late迟到,晚wide广阔地

5. 加ly变副词后意思发生变化的副词highly非常,高度地widely广泛地,非常 nearly几乎lately近来,最近hard努力地hardly几乎不deeply深深地,深刻地widely广泛地

某些副词在句中的位置是怎样的?

1.a. enough足够地、十分地The book is _______enough for you to understand. easy _______ 这本书对你来说完全可以看得懂。They cannot walk ______________

_______________. fast enough 他们走得不够快。I'm ______ __________ to handle my own affairs. old enough 我已经长大了,可以处理我自己的事情。b. enough足够的,

修饰n时也可放在n.后,也可放在n

前:enough money I have ___________ _____________ to buy the book. 我有足够的钱买着本书。enough chairs We have ___________ _____________ for everyone.

我们有足够的椅子让大家坐。

2. a. both, all, often及always等频度副词+实义动词及等频度副词实义动词;b. be动词情态动词助动词both, all, often, always等动词/情态动词助动词+ 动词情态动词/助动词等

are always

They _________ _____________ late for school. 他们总是上学迟到。are both We ________ ____________ students of No. 14 High School. 我俩都是这个班的学生。all

like They ___________

_____________playing basketball. 他们全都喜欢打篮球。have both finished We_________ ____________ _____________ our homework.我们俩都完成作业了。

3. 几个副词在同一个句子中出现的情况:

1) 谓语v后常出现的副词有表示地点,时间,方式,一般的排列顺序为:程度→方式方式→地点如:时间副词,very hard there We worked _________ ________

__________ later ___________. 我们在那儿工作很努力。We’re going to have a meeting_________________ in the classroom _______________________. this

afternoon 今天下午我们将在教室里开会。

2) 几个时间副词,地点副词作状语时,一般来说时间副词/地点副词作状语时,从小到大排列,如:at five o’clock on the afternoon He was born _________________________ of

July 28th, 1994

___________________. 他出生在1994年7月28号下午五点。I first met Peter _______________________. in a bookstore in Boston 我第一次见到Peter是在波士顿的一个书

店里。

以下属几种特殊情况,须牢记:

(1)形容词短语作定语,定语后置。a language difficult to master, a leaning tower about 180 feet high

(2)表语形容词(afraid、alike、alone、asleep、awake、alive 等)作定语,定语后置。如a man alive。有些表身体健康状况的形容词如well、faint、ill 只作表语。sick 既可作表语又可作定语,ill 如作定语意为“bad”。

(3)用作定语,修饰由不定代词one、any、no、some 和every 构成的复合词如anything、something 等时,通常后置。如:I have something important to tell you.

(4)else 常用作疑问代词和不定代词的后置定语。

(5)enough、nearby 修饰名词前置或后置,程度副词一般位于形容词、副词前面,enough 修饰形容词、副词时,必须后置。

(6)几个副词并列作状语时,其顺序较灵活,但一般是:方式→地点→时间。如:We had a good time together outdoors last Sunday.

(7)频度副词如often、always、usually 等在be 动词后,行为动词前。

(8)副词作定语,定语后置。如:The person there is waiting for you.

(9)几个并列的形容词作定语,其语序通常为:限定语(The、A)+ 描绘性形容词+ size (大小)shape + (形状)age + (年龄、时间)color 颜色)origin + (+ (国籍、来

源)material + (材料)+

purpose(目的)+ 名词。如:a heavy black Chinese steel umbrella, the man’s first tow interesting little red French oil paitings

(10)以-ly 结尾的词性辨析。①下列单词以-ly 结尾,但却是形容词而非副词:lively、lonely、lovely、deadly、friendly、ugly、silly、likely、brotherly、timely 等。②表愿意

(无-ly)和引申意(有-ly)的副词:

deep 深wide 宽广high 高low 位置低deeply 深入地widely 广泛地highly 高度地lowly 地位卑微③有无-ly 意义大不相同的副词:dead 完全,绝对be dead asleep deadly 非常be

deadly tired pretty 相当be

pretty certain that… prettily 漂亮地be prettily dressed close 近Don’t sit close. closely 密切地Watch closely! late 晚、迟arrive late, come late lately 最近I haven’t seen him

lately(recently).

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