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选修8Unit2 课堂辅导

来源:101教育网整理 2015-05-26 字体大小: 分享到:

rammar 1. This happens in plants when gardeners take cuttings from growing plants to make new ones, and when small parts of a plant are taken and grown in a laboratory. 当园艺师从生长着的植物上剪下枝条来培植新植物时,当你从植物上取下一小部分放在实验室里生长时,就会产生这种现象。(P.11)

「考点」 “when gardeners take cuttings from growing plants to make new ones, and when small parts of a plant are taken and grown in a laboratory.”是两个时间状语从句。when引导的时间状语从句中从句的动作可以与主句的动作同时发生,也可以先于主句的动作。

「考例」 Don‘t be afraid of asking for help _____ it is needed. (03,全国)

A. unless B. since C. although D. when「解析」 答案D.题意为:当需要帮助时,不要害怕向人求助。四个选项都是可用于引导状语从句的从属连词,如果只是按照结构形式考虑,是无从下手的,应该从语义来考虑。从语言运用的角度看,此处的具体语境为向对方提出要求;后一句应该表达出“凡有需要时”的意思,选项D为最佳答案。

2. The fact that she seemed to develop normally was very encouraging. (P.12) 多莉看来是在正常地成长着,这很令人鼓舞。

「考点」 “that she seemed to develop normally”是同位语从句。

「归纳」 同位语从句可由when/ where/ how/ why/that/ whether等词引导。同位语从句的先行词多半是idea/ fact/ news/ hope/ belief/ thought/ doubt/ question等。同位语从句一般放在抽象名词之后,用以说明抽象名词的具体内容,有时为了保持句子的平衡,同位语从句还可以放在动词的后面。如:Soon word came that we won. 不久就传来了我们赢了的消息。

「考例」 A warm thought suddenly came to me _____ I might use the pocket money to buy some flowers for my mother‘s birthday. (06,安徽)

A. if B. when C. that D. which

「解析」 答案C.题意为:我脑海中突然出现一个温馨的念头,用我的零花钱给妈妈买些鲜花作为她的生日礼物。本题a warm thought 与其同位语从句被 suddenly came to me 隔开,增加了试题难度。


3. Then came the disturbing news that Dolly had become seriously ill. 然后传来了多莉病重的坏消息。(P.12)

「考点」 本句中,副词then放于句首,主语是名词“news”, “that Dolly had become seriously ill”是同位语从句,句子用了倒装语序。

「考例」 In the dark forests _____, some large enough to hold several English towns. (05,辽宁)

A. stand many lakes B. lie many lakes C. many lakes lie D. many lakes stand

「解析」 答案B.本题考查词语辨析以及倒装语序。地点状语放在句首时,主句用全部倒装,表示某物存在某处,动词应用lie. 4. It suddenly opened everyone‘s eyes to the possibility of using cloning to cure serious illness, and even producing human beings. 突然每个人都看到了利用克隆技术治愈重病,甚至克隆出人的可能性。(P.12)

「考点」 本句中of 和后面的动名词结构构成介词短语作定语,修饰前面的名词possibility, 其中using和producing是并列关系。注意介词后出现动名词或动名词的复合结构时,一定要把握好动名词主动与被动形式的变化。

「考例」 At the beginning of class, the noise of desks _____ could be heard outside the classroom. (07,全国II)

A. opened and closed B. to be opened and closed C. being opened and closed D. to open and close

「解析」 答案C.题意为:开始上课时,开关课桌的声音在教室外都能够听到。本题考查动名词的用法。the noise 是句中主语,of后应接动名词复合结构,desks是逻辑主语,因为“课桌”与“开关”之间存在逻辑上的被动关系,故须用动名词的被动形式being opened and closed. 5. Newspapers told stories of evil leaders hoping to clone themselves and religious leaders raised moral questions. 报纸报道了不良领导人希望克隆自己的消息,宗教领袖提出了道德方面的质疑。(P.12)

「考点」 本句句子结构比较复杂,首先and连接了两个并列分句,前句中hoping to clone themselves 是分词短语作定语,相当于定语从句“who hope to clone themselves”。 注意现在分词作定语,表主动和正在进行的概念。

「考例」 Peter received a letter just now _____ his grandma would come to see him soon.(07,四川)

A. said B. says C. saying D. to say

「解析」 答案C.本意考查非谓语动词作定语的用法。题意为:彼得刚刚收到一封信,说他的祖母很快要来看他。a letter和后面的动词say是主谓关系,因此用现在分词作定语。英语中有些名词如message, letter, book, notice, report, sign等,其后必须用现在分词而不能用不定式作定语,用来说明该名词的具体内容。若用that引导从句则是同位语从句。

6. The popularity of the film Jurassic Park, in which a scientist clones several different kinds of extinct dinosaurs, proves how interested ordinary people are in the subject. 电影侏罗纪公园的受欢迎证实了普通人对这一话题是多么感兴趣,在该电影中一位科学家克隆了几种不同的绝种恐龙。(P.15)

「考点」 本句是一个复合句,in which引导非限制性定语从句,修饰“the film”;how引导宾语从句,作prove的宾语。

「考例」 Many people who had seen the film were afraid to go to the forest when they remembered the scenes _____ people were eaten by the tiger. (05,广东)

A. in which B. by which C. which D. that

「解析」 答案A.题意为:很多看过这部电影的人,当回想到人被老虎吃掉的情景时,就不敢去森林了。本题考查“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句。“people were eaten by the tiger”是定语从句,先行词the scenes在定语从句中作地点状语,表示“在这种场景中”,所以选A. 7. Based on what we know now, you cannot clone animals that have been extinct longer than 10,000 years. 就我们现在所知,你不可能克隆那些已经绝种了一万年以上的动物。(P.16)

「点拨」 Based on what we know now是过去分词短语作状语,其逻辑主语一般和句子的主语相一致。

「考例」 _____ by a greater demand for vegetables, farmers have built more green houses.(07,浙江)

A. Driven B. Being driven C. To drive D. Having driven

「解析」 答案A.题意为:由于受到更大的蔬菜量需求的推动,农民修建了更多的温室。根据by,应用被动,排除C和D.根据后边的完成时态,驱动力已经有了,不是正在推动,故选A.

Phrases

1. 「原句再现」 Is it in favour of cloning or against it?(P.12)

「点拨」 in favour of 是固定短语,意思为:赞同,支持;等同于approve of.如:As to education, most specialists are in favour of further reform. 关于教育问题,多数专家支持做进一步改革。

「拓展」 do a favour for sb. / do sb. a favour 帮某人一个忙与in favour of 结构相同的短语有:in praise of 表扬;in honor of /in memory of纪念;in case of 如果,假使;in charge of 掌管;in possession of 拥有;in consequence of 由于,作为……的结果「小试」 用上述短语填空。

(1)All his family are _____________ his decision to work in western area after graduation.(2)While reading, _____________ coming across new words, you‘d better guess their meanings rather than refer to the dictionary.(3)Mary told me that she was _____________ some lovely jewels.(4)They had to move to another city _____________ the typhoon.

Key: (1) in favour of (2) in case of (3) in possession of (4) in consequence of

2. 「原句再现」 You might find this hard at first but it pays off when you come to speak. (P.18)

「点拨」 pay off 意为“偿清(欠款),付清(工资),得到回报,取得成功”。

「拓展」 pay for付款; pay back偿还(未必还清),报答; pay a visit to 拜访; pay attention to 注意「小试」 用适当的介词填空。

(1) Scientists claim a bid to increase production of crops by hybridizing has paid ________.(2) The supermarket ________ which he had ever paid a visit, was burnt to the ground.(3) How can I pay you ________ for all your kindness?

(4) Well, after these years, we‘ve at last paid ________ all our debts.

Key: (1) off (2) to (3) back (4) off

Forbid

观察下面的例句,注意forbid一词在句中的意义和用法:1. Mother forbade me to get addicted to football when I was in senior middle school. 在我高中时期,母亲不许我踢球成瘾。

2. Their religion forbids the eating of pork. 他们信仰的宗教禁止吃猪肉。

「用法」 forbid ( forbade/ forbad, for-bidden, forbidding) 意为 “禁止,不许,妨碍,阻止”。

「搭配」 forbid sb. to do / forbid sb. from doing sth. 禁止某人做某事forbid sth. 禁止某事

「拓展」 与forbid 结构相同的词有:permit sb to do / permit doing sth 允许某人做某事/允许做某事;allow sb. to do / allow doing sth允许某人做某事/允许做某事;advise sb. to do / advise doing sth. 建议某人做某事/建议做某事「小试」 单项填空。

1. There are laws in some countries which forbid advertisements __ at inappropriate times and places.

A. being shown B. shown C. show D. to have shown

2. At the conference he was forbidden _____ the subject again.

A. mentioning B. to mention C. mention D. mentioned

Key: 1-2 AB

Differ观察下面的例句,注意differ一词在句中的意义和用法:

1. The boy differed from his mother in character.这个小孩在性格方面不同于他的母亲。

2. The government differ with consumers on the prices of flats.政府和消费者在房价方面意见不一致。

3. It made no difference to me whether you told me about it or not.你告不告诉我都不重要。

「用法」 differ意为:不同,相异,意见不一致。

「搭配」 differ from…… 与……不同;differ in…… 在……方面不同;differ with sb. 与某人意见不同

「拓展」 be different from…… 不同于……;tell the difference between A and B 指出A与B的不同;make a difference有影响;make no difference 对(某事)根本没有影响,对(某人)不重要「小试」 汉译英。

1. 无论那一方获胜,对我都不重要。__________________________________

2. 我与你在这个观点上是不同的。__________________________________

Key: 1. It makes no difference which side may win. 2. I differ with you in this opinion.

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