陈述句 直接引语如果是陈述句变为间接引语时用连词that (that在口语中常省略) 引导其人称、时态、时间状语、地点状语和指示代词作相应的变化。若引述动词用的是say to sb. 通常改为tell sb若直接引语是两个并列的陈述句要注意在第二个宾语从句前加连词that引导第一个宾语从句的that可省但引导第二个从句的that通常不省。
1) “I hope you can come,” he said to me. →He told me that he hoped I could go. 2) He said, “I am tired and I want to have a rest.”→He said that he was tired and that he wanted to have a rest.
2)一般疑问句 直接引语为一般疑问句时变为间接引语时用if 或 whether 引导语序为陈述句语序若谓语动词后没有间接宾语
加上间接宾语me, him, her, us等。
1) “Have you been there?” he asked. →He asked me if / whether I had been there. 2) He asked, “Are you interested in English?”→He asked me if I was interested in English. 3特殊疑问句 直接引语为特殊疑问句时变为间接引语用疑问词作为连词构成宾语从句语序为陈述语序若直接引语的动词为say改为ask。 1) He said, “Jim, when is the next train?” →He asked Jim when the next train was.
2) He asked me, “Why did you do it?”→ He asked me why I had done it. ♥直接引语变间接引语的五点变化
1) 若直接引语为客观真理则变为间接引语时时态不变。如The teacher said, “The earth turns around the sun.”→ The teacher said that the earth turns around the sun.
2) 有时直接引语有特定的过去时间状语变为间接引语时时态可不变。如He said, “My son was born in 1995.”→He said that his son was born in 1995.
2. 时间状语的变化。now→ then; today→ that day; tonight→ that night; this week (month, year)→that week (month, year); two days (years) ago→ two days (years) before; the day before yesterday→ two days before; yesterday→ the day before; last week (month, year) →the week (month, year) before; tomorrow→ the next day; next week (month, year)→the next week (month, year) 如He said, “She left yesterday.” →He said that she had left the day before.
【注意】若在当时转述now不必改为then若在当天转述today, yesterday, tomorrow等不必改为that day, the day before, the next day等。
3代词的变化。指示代词this→ that; these→ those人称代词的变化(口诀) “一主二宾三不变”。(“一”指从句的第一人称“主”是指主句的主语在变为间接引语时从句的第一人称与主句的主语要一致“二”指从句的第二人称“宾”是指主句的宾语在变为间接引语时从句的第二人称与主句的宾语要一致“三”指从句的第三人称在变为间接引语时不变)。如 “I like these better than she does,” he said to me.→He told me that he liked those better than she did.
4地点状语的变化。here→ there 【注意】若在当地转述则here可不改为there。
5动词的变化。come → go 【注意】若地点未发生改变come可不变。
2.before 在......之前 You can‟t borrow books from school library before you get your student card. 在多久之后才...... They worked day and night about three days before everything returned to normal . 过多久才...... He rushed out of the room before I could say a word.常用于before sb. can/ could… 以免以防趁......还没有......,强调动作的必要性以避免或防止从句动作的发生。 He made a mistake, but then he corrected the situation before it got worse.
3. It / This / That is the first / second / third …time that It was the first time in a year and a half that I‟d seen the night face to face.
1) This is the first time that I have seen to Beijing
2) It was the second time that I had seen the film.
4,主语+ think/ find/ feel/ consider/ make/ regard…+ it +形容词/名词 + 不定式短语结构中it 作形式宾语代替后面的不定式短语。
1) I find it pleasant to work with him. 我觉得和他一起工作很愉快。
2) Tom didn‟t find it difficult to write letters in Chinese. 汤姆发现用汉语写信不难。
3) All these noises made it impossible for me to go on with the work.这些噪音使我无法继续工作。
5, I do want to change this situation, but I don’t know how. 解析do want是强调谓语用来加强语气的。强调谓语时用助动词do; does或 did+动词原形。
1) She does sing the song well.
2) He did finish his homework.