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小学英语阅读教学中的故事拓展

来源:101教育 2016-11-22 字体大小: 分享到:

  【摘要】:本文通过教学实践,探讨了通过“故事拓展”开展小学英语阅读教学,培养学生的兴趣,扩大学生的视野,拓宽学生的知识面,进而消除由教材阅读带给学生的乏味感。

  【关键词】:故事拓展;要求;形式

  我们都知道,小学生学英语是学得快忘得更快,其原因是虽然小学生语言模仿能力强,对新出现的词汇跟着老师读几遍便能记住,但由于他们的学习内容单一,又没有语言实践的原生基地,结果学会后很快又忘记,造成词汇学习越来越困难,从而导致部分学生逐渐丧失学习英语的信心和兴趣。然而,通过我们的实践表明,在日常的英语教学中,有意识地尝试和充分拓展“故事”,帮助学生巩固教材,提高语言综合运用能力,会让学生从中获益非浅。

  所谓“故事”,是指词、句、段围绕主题而有机地结合,使文章表达出一种信息。故事拓展使学生运用语言的能力再次得到印证,使重点信息的吸收和消化成为可能,从此激发学生的“反馈”能力,扩大语言使用的场所,使学生在轻松、愉快的气氛中学习和掌握英语。

  一、为什么要进行故事拓展?

  当前,小学的英语阅读教学往往带给学生乏味、沉闷感。如何避免这一弊端的出现?课程教材研究所李静纯指出,要充分考虑如何延伸和拓展教材。这里主要涉及到的工作有:如何确定学生已经吸收和运用的知识和技能?如何预见学生在近期可能巩固和发展的知识和技能?如何提前或推迟某些目标的实现?如何满足学生当前的潜在需求?等等。所有这些,都是教材编者所无法事先确切预估的,因此,这项工作就只能由教师来完成。(李静纯,2008)这样,教材中固定的内容,对教师的知识结构提出了巨大挑战,即在日新月异的背景下,如何应对学生对知识的渴求?这就要求教师平时就要注意通过报刊杂志、互联网、电视媒体、集中培训、参加研讨会等各种渠道不断学习,随时更新自己的知识结构。这样教师才有可能在课文语境之外,开拓出更为丰富的语境,让学生接触不同类型的语义,在感性材料中领悟语言的丰富性。可以说没有语言的“海洋”,学生不可能获得真正意义上的“游泳本领”。只有在广泛阅读、广泛涉猎大量语言材料的基础上,才能保证语言输入的质与量,营造出广阔的语言应用天地。

  同时,利用故事拓展开展阅读教学有利于提高学生的英语水平。课内生词在故事中反复出现,激活了他们的短时记忆;同一单词在不同的语境中出现,使学生有机会接触其不同词义,培养学生利用上下文理解词义的能力。再次,通过广泛的阅读,学生对句型结构、习惯用法的认识更为生动,在文章整体性的谋篇布局方面也有了更多的学习文本。学生在阅读的过程中,必然会调动和运用以前所学习过的语言知识,因为阅读过程既是一个运用已知和探索未知的过程,又是一个复习巩固、温故知新的过程。无论从哪方面讲,对小学生进行英语故事阅读的渗透培养,无疑是一件一举多得的工作。

  然而,目前小学生阅读材料相对匮乏,已有的阅读材料也因种种原因未能很好地为每一个孩子提供帮助。因此,设法为他们提供切合实际的阅读材料势在必行。“故事”结合教材、教学以及学生的实际情况所产生,是较为适合他们的阅读材料之一。

  二、怎样进行故事拓展?

  故事拓展的前提是教师要给学生一定的抓手,即找到教材和故事的最佳结合点。有了一定的抓手以后,学生就会对所要拓展的故事产生好奇感。教师就可以进一步启发,给学生提供一些相关的背景知识,以此激发学生阅读的欲望。只有学生对这段故事感兴趣了,他们才高兴地静心去阅读。这时,我们老师可以根据孩子们的实际情况,对课文进行或深或浅、或难或易的拓展。

  1、围绕话题进行故事拓展

  我们在《英语课程标准》中不难发现,在小学必须达到二级话题目标,即能理解和表达有关下列话题的简单信息:数字、颜色、时间、天气、食品、服装、玩具、动植物、身体、个人情况、家庭、学校、朋友、文体活动、节日等。围绕这些话题,我们可以展开有针对性的故事拓展。例如,在学完服装后,可以进行如下的故事拓展。

  The Coat and the Trousers

  One weekend, I wanted to go shopping after I played sports. I met a customer in the shop. He wanted to buy some new clothes. First, the shopkeeper gave him a pair of trousers. He put them on, then took them off and gave them back to her and said, "No, give me a coat instead."

  She gave him a coat and told him, "This one is worth as much as the trousers." To my surprise, he took the coat without saying a word and walked out of the shop with it. She run quickly after him and said "You haven't paid for that coat!"

  "But I gave you the trousers for the coat," he said, "They are worth the same, aren't they?"

  "Yes," she said, "But you didn't pay for the trousers, either!"

  "Of course, I didn't!" answered the man. "I did not take them. I am not foolish! Nobody gives things back and then pays for them." Soon a policeman came ....

  2、围绕单元中的关键词汇进行故事拓展

  在《英语课程标准》二级目标中,对词汇的目标描述为:学习有关本级话题范围内的600-700个单词和50个左右的习惯用语。这些单词和习惯用语就散落在每册的各个单元中。教师可以围绕每个单元中出现的关键词汇选择适合学习者阅读水平的故事。这样,一方面可以引导学生复习本单元已经学习的词汇,另一方面可以让学生间接到一定数量的生词,为学生今后的学习做好铺垫。如在学习六年级下册Unit 1 How tall are you?时,可以围绕本单元的bigger, smaller, feet, size, wear等词,进行如下的故事拓展。

  Two Feet in Different Size

  One of Harry's feet was bigger than the other. "I can never find boots or shoes for my feet," he said to his friend, Dick.

  "Why don't you go to a shoemaker?" Dick said. "A good one can make you the right shoes."

  "I’ve never been to a shoemaker," Harry said. "Tell me, please, aren't they expensive?"

  "No," Dick said, "Some of them aren't. There's a good one in our village, and he's quite cheap. Here's his address." He wrote something on a piece of paper and gave it to Harry.

  A few days later, Harry went to the shoemaker by the address, and the shoemaker looked at him up and down, smiled and said, "Well, I see. Your feet are different in size. I can make you some shoes."

  Harry went to the shop again a week later and looked at the shoes. Then he said to the shoemaker angrily, "You're a foolish man! I said, 'Make one shoe bigger than the other.' But you've made one smaller than the other!"(朱祥慧,2005)

  3、围绕语法进行拓展

  尽管淡化语法的提法叫得很响,但是语法作为英语学习的一条内在脉络,不容忽视。掌握一些基本的语法规则,可以帮助学生少走弯路,更好地理解语言现象,更准确地掌握语言,为进一步用英语进行交际打好基础。因此,我们应该学会如何高效率的进行语法渗透,以提高学生的英语综合运用能力。对于阅读教学而言,我们可以围绕语法进行故事拓展。例如对情态动词can的使用,可配合以下故事:

  Can He Have a Seat?

  It is a wet day, a woman with a dog gets on a bus. It is a very big dog and its feet are very dirty. The woman says, "Oh, conductor, if I pay for my dog, can he have a seat like the other passengers?" The conductor looks at the dog and then he says, "Certainly, madam, he can have a seat like all the other passengers, but like the other passengers, he mustn't put his feet on it." (高升官,朱祥慧,2001)

  在阅读教学中进行故事拓展就对我们教师提出了许多要求。我们平常在阅读上网的过程中,要善于积累,把能够渗透到PEP教材中的故事,进行改编设计。同时我们平常在积累故事时,要尽量做到要素齐全,如来源,话题名称,适用级别,衔接的册次、单元,拓展故事的具体题目、内容,及是否配图,设计说明(故事的设计意图、亮点和使用建议)。

  经过我们的努力,“故事”的拓展会给孩子们一个广阔而自由的空间。孩子们在这个过程中,经过了对“故事”的反复研读,拓展时又经过了不断的思考和尝试,最后形成了自己独特的崭新“提炼”,不仅进一步掌握了英语语言知识,更重要的是,他们在这个过程中体验了成功,培养了自信,从而感受到了学习英语的无比快乐。(赵峰艺,2009)

  三、故事拓展有哪些要求?

  故事拓展,在课堂内和课堂外都可以进行,但必须要注意以下几点:

  1、拓展要尽量趣味呈现

  我们在选取故事时,可以选择一些结尾留有悬念、语言风趣幽默的故事给同学们的学习创造惊喜、留有余香,引导我们的学生进行较多的语言积累,增强语感,提高兴趣。或者我们也可以配以图画来呈现,用色彩来渲染。因为学生学习主观能动性的激发,主要着力点之一便是兴趣的引发。而在课堂上分享一些有特色的故事内容,能够在班级教学中激起意想不到的学习热情。师生共同分享美文,共同分享阅读感受。在对承载着信息的文字的解读中,我们一起感受文字的张力,体会语言的丰富性。这中间,老师如何介入学生的阅读过程,对于阅读效果,阅读习惯的养成有至关重要的作用。这就需要老师进行积攒,素材要多多益善。这样,在需要的时候,顺手拈来,不费吹灰之力。如下面这个故事就令人回味无穷。

  The Teacher and Her Student

  Did you hear anything about the teacher who was helping one of her kindergarten students put his boots on?

  He asked for help and she went to help him. With her pulling and his pushing, the boots still didn't want to go on. When the second boot was on, she was very tired. She almost cried when the little boy said, "Teacher, they're on the wrong feet." She looked, and sure enough they were. It wasn't any easier pulling the boots off than it was putting them on. She managed to stay calm as they worked together to get the boots back on --- this time on the right feet. He then said, "These aren't my boots." She was a little angry and said, "Why didn't you say so?" Once again she struggled to help him pull the ill-fitting boots off. Then he said, "They're my brother's boots. My mom made me wear them." She didn't know if she should laugh or cry. The teacher tried her best to keep calm and put the boots on his feet again. She said, "Now, where are your gloves?" the boy said, "I put them in my boots ...."(朱祥慧,2006)

  2、选取材料后要进行改编,使其紧扣该单元内容或要复习的内容

  如果故事的内容与该单元或者要复习的内容毫不相干,甚至风马牛不相及,那么这个故事拓展就属于无效拓展。如有的老师在五年级上册Unit 3 What's your favourite food? 进行了如下拓展,尽管故事很生动,但没有紧扣这个单元的教学内容,对语言应用没有达到预定的效果。但如果把它放到五年级下册Unit 4 What can you do?来拓展,效果就会更好一些。

  Can a Horse Eat a Fish?

  Mr. White was riding a horse in the rain all the afternoon. When he reached a restaurant, he was all wet and cold. He saw a fire in the restaurant and many people sitting around it. He couldn't get a seat near the fire. He thought hard and soon he had an idea. He called out to the waiter. "Bring some fish to my horse!" the waiter answered, "Horses don't eat fish." Mr. White said, "But my horse eats fish." The waiter did as Mr. White told him. The people in the restaurant felt very strange and ran out after the waiter. When all the people went out, Mr. White sat down at the table near the fire. When the waiter and the people came back, they said, "Your horse doesn't want to eat the fish." Mr. White answered, "Put the fish on the table if my horse doesn't want it. I'll eat it as soon as I warm up and dry out." (朱祥慧,2004)

  同时我们还发现,尽管有些材料新颖有趣,但由于老师提供给学生时没有进行改编,生词量太大,导致课上学生不懂,只能等到老师翻译后才明白是怎么回事,所以虽然能导致学生哄堂大笑,但仍是失败的拓展。

  3、拓展要跟上精心设计的练习

  作为教师,我们应该充分利用故事,设计合理的任务活动,让学生在完成一系列的任务中巩固所学的词汇、句型、语法知识,同时给学生提供互助、交流、讨论、展示的平台,让学生在愉快的氛围中,在故事的统领下完成小组合作的任务。如

  Bad Fruit

  A fruit vendor in the Philippines sold a watermelon to a woman and assured her that it was very sweet because it was red inside. As she road home in a jeep, the vehicle skidded and the watermelon fell to the street and broken open. The woman was surprised to see that the fruit was pale pink and not red.

  So she returned with it to the vendor and complained loudly.

  "Madam," replied the vendor, "when one falls out of a vehicle to the street one can expect to turn pale."

  练习:

  1. What color is the watermelon? __________________________

  2. How does the woman go home? _________________________

  总之,如果故事中出现了有碍学生阅读的知识点,可以鼓励学生讨论或查阅,或者老师给予适当的提示,从而为学生顺利阅读打好伏笔。我们可以给学生设计以下几种方法:学习少量的生词或句子;让学生看标题、插图等预测阅读材料的内容;让学生回忆与阅读主题相关的经验;介绍有关的背景知识;将材料的插图打乱顺序,让学生排序。

  同时,我们在进行故事教学的时候可以采用“讨论交流,适当练习,读写结合”来展开。在讨论交流的教学中,学生的交流是以教师的启动为基础的。教师在讲授故事前对学生作适当的引导,尤其是在讲授较难理解的故事前,要先向学生介绍一下有关背景知识并提出阅读要求,为学生的理解打下良好的基础。教师主要做好引导工作,扫清故事阅读中的障碍。这样,使全体学生进入良好的准备状态,激发了他们的学习兴趣,从而使他们产生一种探求知识的渴望。另外,在故事教学的课堂上还可以适当增加一些笔头练习。当学生进入高年级以后,光读不练是不可能完全掌握所学知识的。因此,教师必须设计一些和故事内容相关的笔头练习。这样,读写相结合,学生才能对知识掌握的更牢固。

  四、故事拓展可以搞哪些形式?

  我们老师提供给孩子故事的拓展,一般有三种形式,教师可根据故事的难易程度选用。

  1、无提示式拓展

  这种拓展需要学生查词典,具备上下文猜测能力。借助字典或结合上下文理解关键词的意思。词典,是读书治学的基本工具,也是孩子们的“良师益友”。养成查阅词典的习惯,不仅可以帮助孩子们解除阅读中的困难,加深对文章的理解,而且有助于孩子们们积累知识,扩大知识面。这种拓展相对来说,着重提升学生的动手动脑能力。

  The Sun and the Wind

  One day, the wind starts an argument with the sun. "I'm stronger than you are!" says the wind.

  "No," answers the sun. "I am much stronger than you are."

  When they are arguing, they see a man walking down the road. He is wearing a heavy coat. The sun says to the wind, "Now let us see which of us can make the man take off his coat. Then we'll know who is stronger."

  First the wind tries. It begins to blow very hard. It blows so hard that the man pulls his coat around him. It tries and tries, but it can't make the man take off his coat. Then the wind says to the sun, "Now it's your turn. Let me see if you can make him take off his coat."

  The sun begins to shine on the man. Soon it gets very hot! The man takes off his coat. The argument is over.

  2、注释式拓展

  这种拓展能对比较难的词汇(音标、词性、释义)、短语甚至句型有精简的汉语解释,这样既为学生自学故事提供了方便,又为识词认词提出了自学内容和目标。提示为学生对故事的理解奠定了基础,即便学生初次记不住,但随着以后提示内容在故事中的复现,学生会不断巩固识记内容,拓宽自己的词汇面。

  My Pan Is Too Small

  One day after supper, Mr. Dickens went out for a walk along the bank of a river. He saw a fisherman there. So he stopped to watch him quietly.

  After a few minutes, the fisherman pulled his line in. There was a big, fat fish at the end of it.

  The fisherman took it off the hook and threw it back into the water. Then he put his hook and line into the water again. After a few more minutes he caught another big fish. Again he threw it back into the river. Then, the third time, he caught a small fish. He put it into the basket and started to get ready to go home.

  Mr. Dickens was very surprised. "Why did you throw those big fish back into the water, and keep only that small one?" he asked.

  The fisherman looked at him and answered, "My pan is too small!"

  我们在学习完一篇故事的时候,要让学生来总结一下对这个故事学习的感受。行之有效的方法有:复述、改写或续写原文的内容;根据原文进行角色扮演。通过这些活动,我们不光可以评定学生对这个单元用来复习的故事的掌握程度,还拓展了学生的思维,丰富了学生的课外知识,让学生真正做到活学活用。

  “操千曲而后晓声,观千剑而后识器”。实践证明,将词汇融于或大或小的“故事”拓展之中,能有效地帮助孩子进一步学习和掌握英语词汇。让我们以故事为凭借,帮助孩子丰富词汇知识,让他们通过反复的语言实践,逐渐实现对语言符号的感知、融合和深化,在积累和丰富语言经验的同时,拓宽他们使用英语的机会,以求达到提高阅读兴趣和语言综合能力的目的。

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