（一）it用做形式主语或形式宾语：根据句子结构的需要，it用做形式主语或形式宾语，而真正的主语或宾语（to do 短语，doing短语，名词性从句）则放在句尾。
to do sth.
find / make / think / feel it +形容词/名词+连词+名词性从句
to do sth.
1. It will become more and more important to have a good knowledge of English .
2. It’s usual for close friends to have similar ideas and beliefs .
3. It’s a pity that I didn’t think of it earlier.
4. It’s no use going there so early.
5. Out teacher thinks it no good learning without practice.
6. Didn’t I make it clear to you that I was not coming ?
7. We found it strange that no one would take the money.
1. It takes+时间段+sb.+ to do sth.
It’s said that…….
It’s reported that ……
It’s believed/thought/suggested that……
1. It generally takes time to reach this point—being on the same wavelength .
2. It is believed that the two children went off exploring（探险）on their own and get stuck on the cliff .
3. It’s suggested that we should have a meeting to discuss the problem .
4. It was once predicted（预测）that British and American English would become separate languages finally .
It is / was+被强调的部分+that / who+句子的其他部分。
It is / was not until+时间+that+句子的其他部分。
1. I saw John on my way to school this morning.
It was John who/that I saw on my way to school this morning.
It was on my way to school that I saw John this morning.
It was this morning that I saw John on my way to school.
2. It was his best suit that John wore to the dance last night.
3. It was not until 1920 that regular radio broadcast began.
4. It was the strange way things looked and sounded in my familiar room at night that frightened me so much .
5. It was the kindness and sympathy in their eyes that prevented me from doing so .
1. What is it that Joe can’t find in the bathroom ?
2. Where was it that you met the foreign guests from Australia?
3. I can’t quite remember when it was that we married.
4. Was it because he was very ill that he asked for leave?
1. It is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language.
2. It is these poisonous products that can cause the symptoms of the flu, such as headache and aching muscles.
3. It was almost ten o’clock when our soldiers came back from the front.
4. Was it in this place that the last king died ?
Was it at the air battle on June 8, 1944, which was led by Captain Johnson that Peter lost his life.
1. I don’t think possible to master a foreign language without much memory.
A. this B. that C. its D. it
2. Does matter if he can’t finish the job on time ?
A. this B. that C. he D. it
3. Tom’s mother kept telling him that he should work harder, but didn’t help.
A. he B. which C. she D. it
4. is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language.
A. There B. This C. That D. It
5. It was in the small house ___ was built with stones by his father ___he spent his childhood.
A. which ; that B. that ; where
C. which ; which D. that ; which
分析：本题考查带有定语从句的强调句型用法。句中：“___ was built with stones by his father的定语从句。被强调的部分是in the small house ___ was built with stones by his father。根据句意：他正是在他父亲用石头盖的房子里度过了他的童年。故选择A
1. That is said that this novel has been translated into several languages.
分析：根据句意：据说这部小说已经被译成多种语言。表示据说，应当说：It is said that…。That改为：It
2. Is this your turn to clean the blackboard ?
分析：根据句意：该轮到你擦黑板了吧？ 轮到某人做某事：It is one’s turn to do….This 改为：it
3. It is known to everyone, the moon travels around the earth once every month.
分析：表示“众所周知”可以说：It is known to everyone that+陈述句。或：As is known to everyone，+陈述句。It 改为：As, 或去掉“，”加连词that
4. The official made this clear that he would do everything possible to solve the problem.
分析：根据句意：这位官员宣布将尽一切力量解决这个问题。固定结构应当是：make it clear that+陈述句。It在此是形式宾语。This改为：it
5. It was in the park where the old couple told me their love story.
分析：根据句意可以知道本句用了强调句型，强调地点：in the park 所以按照强调句型的结构where改为：that
6. Although we can’t see them, there is air around us.
（1）I didn’t telephone the office until Wednesday.
（2）It was not until Wednesday that I telephoned the office.
（3）Not until Wednesday did I telephone the office.
（1）It is only when we cannot see perfectly that we realize how important our eyes are.
（2）Only when we cannot see perfectly do we realize how important our eyes are.
3. It was in surgery that the results of that discovery were obtained, and it was there that the battle between the new idea and the old prejudices was fought out most dramatically.
1. Nobody thinks very polite to be always cutting in when another person is talking.
A. that B. this C. it D. there
2. I was disappointed with the film, I had expected to be much better.
A. this B. that C. one D. it
3. He tore up my photo and upset me.
A. this B. it C. which D. what
4. It was with great courage the boy told the truth he had stolen the money.
A. which ; that B. when ; what
C. as ; that D. that ; that
5. When I try to find that prevents so many people from taking part in the program, it seems to me that there are two main causes.
A. what it does B. what it is
C. why it does D. why it is
6. Nancy is expecting another baby and hopes will be a boy.
A. he B. that C. it D. there
1. The children often help their parents do the farm work.
2. In 1993, a tomato was developed that was very different from any grown before.
3. The biggest problem of Chinese farmers is the shortage of arable land.
4. Future agriculture should depend on high technology as well as traditional methods.
It is important to know another language and how to communicate without words when you are in another country. Before saying anything, people communicate with each other by using gestures（手势）. However, many gestures have different meanings, or no meaning at all, in different parts of the world.
In the United States, nodding your head up and down means “yes”, while in some pats of Greece and Turkey, it means “no”. In the southeast of Asia, it is a polite way of saying “I heard you”.
Today in the USA, when someone puts his thumb up, it means “Everything is all right.” However, in Greece it is bad. Also putting your clasped（紧握的）hands up above your head means “I am the winner.” It is the sign which players often make. In Russia it is the sign of friendship.
In the USA, holding your hand up with the thumb and index finger（食指）, and the other three straight means “Everything is OK.” In France, it means “You are worth nothing.”
It is also important to make eye communication. If you look down when talking to an American, he or she may feel that you are shy, or you are trying to hide something.
Besides these, you should also know there are some topics that can not be talked about, such as age, weight and marriage. You can talk about the weather, work, sports, food, where one lives and news of the day.
1. Which of the following is true?
A. People all over the world only communicate by words.
B. Many gestures either have different meanings or no meanings at all.
C. Gestures are the most common way to communicate.
D. People can talk about anything in another country.
2. In Greece nodding your head means “_________.”
A. Yes. B. No
C. I heard you D. I am the winner
3. Putting the thumb up should not be used in _____.
A. Greece B. the USA C. England D. China
4. What does this sentence mean “….your action can speak louder than your words” ?
A. What you do is better than what you say.
B. You try your best to be polite.
C. You are better understood by your gestures than through your words.
D. What you say is better than what you do.
5. The main idea of the passage is that when you are in another country, _____.
A. it is important to know the language.
B .it is important to know what you talk about to a foreigner.
C. to know how to communicate without words is as important as to know the language.
D. to communicate through gestures is more important than to know the language.
“In the old days,” as one wife said. “ The husband was the husband and the wife was the wife.” In the past husbands each had their own way of going on. The wives’ jobs were to look after them.
“The wives wouldn’t stand for it nowadays. Husbands help with the children now. They stay more, as well as have more interest, at home.” We shall give some examples of what husbands do, firstly in sharing work with their wives; and secondly, in their largely independent domain（领域）of house repairs.
“Some husbands, as well as doing much of the heavy work in the home, carrying the coals, and emptying the rubbish, act as assistants to their wives for at least part of the day.” Mr. Hammond washes up the dishes every night and lays the breakfast for the morning. Mr. Clark said that on Sunday mornings he usually hovered（吸尘）around and read plays aloud for his wife while she did a bit of washing. Mr. Davis polishes the floors and helps to make the beds at weekend, and during weekdays, takes the dog out for one of his twice-daily walks. So it goes on….
1. The expression “act as assistants to their wives” means that ____.
A. husbands read plays aloud.
B. husbands are paid by their wives.
C. husbands help their wives.
D. husbands look after their sick children.
2. the meaning of the wife’s words at the beginning of the passage were that ____.
A. in the past men stayed at home all day.
B. in the past there was a clear division of role in the family.
C. in the past most boys and girls were married at an early age.
D. in the past wives and husbands lived separately.
3. What does Mr. Davis do at weekends ?
A. He cleans the floors and makes the beds.
B. He reads plays aloud and does the weekly shopping.
C. He cooks food for his wife.
D. He takes the dog out for a walk.
4. In the past, the woman’s main job was to ___.
A. take the children to school.
B. take care of their husband.
C. do the washing up.
D. dig the garden.
5. The passage is mainly about____.
A. the division of husbands, wives and children.
B. how to get on well between husbands and wives.
C. the relationship between husband, wives and children.
D. the relationship between husband and wives today.
1. C，it在句中做形式宾语。句型为think it +形容词+to do something
3. B，it作为代词指代前面He tore up my photo这件事。
4. D，这是一个带有同位语从句的强调句，“这个男孩怀着极大的勇气说出了他偷东西的真相。he had stolen the money.做the truth的同位语从句，用that引导。
1. It is the children that often help their parents do the farm work.
2. It was In 1993 that a tomato was developed that was very different from any grown before.
3. It is the shortage of arable land that the biggest problem of Chinese farmers is
4. It is high technology as well as traditional methods that future agriculture should depend on.
1. B 细节判断题，根据第一段However, many gestures have different meanings, or no meaning at all, in different parts of the world.可以得知：许多手势在某些地区要么有着不同的含义要么根本就没有任何意义。
2. B 根据第二段内容可以得知点头在希腊某些地区的含义。
3. A 根据第三段：Today in the USA, when someone puts his thumb up, it means “Everything is all right.” However, in Greece it is bad.可以得知树大拇指在希腊的含义不同于在美国。它是“不好”的表示，不应使用。C，D两项文章没有涉及。
4. C 语句理解。根据第一段内容：人们在国外与人交流要么懂得外语，要么学会使用手势交流。所以说“通过手势动作比通过语言能更好地被人理解。
5. C 考查文章的主旨。第一段第一句交代了文章的主题。
1. C，根据第三段：“Some husbands, as well as doing much of the heavy work in the home, carrying the coals, and emptying the rubbish, act as assistants to their wives for at least part of the day.” 可以得知丈夫在也帮助他们的妻子。
3. A，根据最后一段：Mr. Davis polishes the floors and helps to make the beds at weekend, and during weekdays, takes the dog out for one of his twice-daily walks.可以得出结论。
4. B，根据第一段：The wives’ jobs were to look after them.可以知道过去妻子的任务。
主语与谓语的一致：在英语表达中，谓语动词的形式要和主语的人称和数保持一致。主要体现在be动词，助动词do, have 以及一般现在时态中的动词形式。
1. I am seventeen, and he is sixteen.
2. There is a desk in the room, but there are no chairs in it.
3. John gets up at six o’clock every morning.
4. What is the latest news about the Olympic Games ?
5. The family are sitting at the breakfast table.
① My brother and I have both seen that film.
② Both rice and wheat are grown in this part of China.
③ The poet and the novelist were both present at the meeting.
④ Reading, writing and arithmetic are called the three R’s.
① The professor and writer is speaking at the meeting.
② War and peace is a constant theme in history.
③ One more knife and fork is needed.
④ The statesman and poet was engaged in warfare all his life.
⑤ Law and order has been established.
⑥ Bread and butter is our daily food.
⑦ Fish and chips is a popular fast food.
⑧ The stars and stripes is the national flag of U.S.A.
（3）这部分主语前面有each, every, many a, no 等修饰时，谓语动词一般用单数形式。
① Each doctor and（each）nurse was given a new shirt.
② No sound and no voice is heard.
③ Many a boy and girl has made the same mistake.
④ Every minute and every second is precious.
① Reading is a great pleasure in life.
② To live means to create.
③ That we need more time is obvious.
④ What is needed is food and medicine.
① Three thousand miles is a long distance.
② Eight hours of sleep is enough.
4. 不定代词anyone, anything, everyone, everything, someone, something, no one, nothing, each the other 等做主语时，谓语动词用单数形式。
① Is anybody going to tell him the news ?
② Someone wants to see you.
由连词or, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also, 连接的两个名词或代词做主语时，谓语动词和离它最近的哪个名词或代词的人称和数一致。
1. Either you or Jean is to be sent to New Zealand.
2. Not only his family but also he likes Chaplin’s movies.
3. Neither Tom nor the Browns enjoy their journey to Beijing owing to the bad weather.
4. George or Tom is wanted.
注意：There be句型中be 的形式由它后面的第一个名词的数决定。
1. There aren’t any letters in the mail for you today.
2. There is a lamp, two pens and three books on the desk.
3. Here are some envelopes and paper for you.
名词后面带有with, along with, together with, besides, except, but, like, including, as well as, rather than短语共同做主语时，谓语动词与这些短语前面的那个名词的数一致。
1. All but one were here just now.
2. A library with five thousand books is offered to that nation as a gift.
3. An expert, together with some assistants, was sent to help in this work.
4. You as well as I are wrong.
1. 代词none, neither, all的不可数形式还是复数形式由它们指的内容决定
（1）All hope has gone.
（2）All are agreed on this point.
（3）—Is there any milk in the fridge? —No, there is none.
（4）None has returned from the meeting.
2. 集合名词group, class, family, army, enemy, team等名词的单，复数形式根据它们强调的内容而定。
（1）The class were all cheerful.
（2）The team were taking over some new plays.
（3）The group are reading the newspapers.
（4）The army is going to remain in this town.
（5）The army have rescued the travelers.
3. 限定词短语all of…; none of…; a lot of…; 以及分数/百分数+of ….修饰名词构成的名词短语做主语时，谓语动词的形式由of 后面的名词形式决定。
（1）None of these suggestions are very helpful.
（2）I don’t think any of us wants to work tomorrow.
（3）Two-fifths of the students in the class are from Arabic-speaking countries.
2. one of +复数名词做定语从句的先行词时，定语从句中的谓语动词与复数名词一致。 the only one of +复数名词做定语从句的先行词时，定语从句中的谓语动词用单数形式。
Jim was one of the boys who were late for class.
Jim was the only one of the boys who was late for class.
[例1] E-mail, as well as telephones, _____ an important part in daily communication.
A. is playing B. have played C. are playing D. play
分析：带有as well as 短语的名词做主语时，谓语动词与这个名词的人称和数一致，不受as well as 短语内容的影响。E-mail是单数形式，故选择A。
[例2] Either John or his friends _____ to blame for the bad results.
A. are B. is C. was D. has been
分析：either…or..连接两个名词做主语时，其谓语动词与离它最近的名词的数和人称一致，本题中his friends 决定了谓语动词的形式，故选择A。
[例3] The conductor and composer _____ by a crowd of people.
A. are greeted B. is greeted C. greets D. have been greeted
分析：根据句意，主语部分的The conductor and composer 是指一个人即：乐队指挥兼作曲家， 所以主语的内容是单数形式，故选择B。
[例4] —The trousers _____ you well, madam.
—But the colour _____ me.
A. fit; don’t suit B. fits; doesn’t suit C. fits; don’t suit D. fit; doesn’t suit
分析：trousers, clothes, glasses,等名词本身就是复数形式。谓语动词用复数形式。Colour 是单数，谓语用单数，故选择D。
[例5] The Smith’s family, which _____ rather a large one, _____ very fond of their old house.
A. were; were B. was; were C. were; was D. was; was
分析：family指“家庭”为单数，指“家庭成员”为复数形式。第一空格前的which 指“家庭” 谓语用was. 第二空格后的fond of指“家庭成员喜欢他们的老房子” 谓语为were，故选择B。
[例6] He is the only one of the students who _____ a winner of scholarship for three years.
A. is B. are C. have been D. has been
分析：当定语从句先行词是“one of +复数形式”时， 其后的从句谓语动词用复数形式。而当one之前有the only时， 定语从句则强调the only one，谓语动词用单数。另外，题目中的时间状语for three years表明从句的时态为现在完成时，故选择D。
[例7] Three fifths of the police _____ in the school near the town.
A. has trained B. have trained C. has been trained D. have been trained
分析：分数+名词做主语时，谓语动词的形式由分数所指的名词的形式（可数名词或不可数名词）决定，police 是集合名词为复数形式，根据句子意思，police 与train 为被动关系，应用被动语态，故选择D。
1. Now my picture and the prize is hanging in the library.
分析：本句中主语Now my picture and the prize是复数形式，谓语动词is应改为are.
2. Sometimes, we talked to each other very well in class, but after class we become stranger at once.
3. But not all information are good to society.
1. —Is there anybody in the classroom ?
—No, the teacher, together with the students _____ to the playground.
A. go B. went C. has gone D. have gone
2. —Are these your sheep ?
—No. Mine _____ on grass at the foot of the hill.
A. are feeding B. feed C. is fed D. is feeding
3. Sitting at the back of the room but in front of some old men and women _____ a very shy
girl with two bright eyes.
A. was B. are C. were D. there was
4. Mr. Bush, together with his wife and daughter _____ going to Japan next week.
A. are B. is C. will be D. would be
5. Not the teacher but the students _____ excited.
A. is B. has C. are D. have
6. As I have a meeting at four, ten minutes _____ all that I can spare to talk with you.
A. are B. was C. is D. were
7. _____ of the land in that district _____ covered with trees and grass.
A. Two fifth; is B. Two fifths; are C. Two fifth; are D. Two fifths; is
分析：mine指my sheep 为复数形式。是主动语态。
分析：本句为倒装句。主语是a very shy girl with two bright eyes.核心主语是a very shy girl，为单数，全句为过去时。
分析：运用就近原则，谓语动词和主语the students 一致，此处为主系表结构，用be动词。