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高二必修四英语unit4知识点梳理

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  随着中国逐渐走进国际化,使用英语的范围也越来越广,现在在日常的生活中许多地方都用得到英语。

  1.We can learn a lot about what a perso nis thinking by watching his or her body language.我们能够通过一个人的身体的动作了解他的许多所四所想。

  [问]本句中的by watching his or her body language是什么意思,有何用法?

  [答]本句中的by watching his or her body language是动名词watching作介词by的宾语。

  下面我简单谈一谈动名词的用法,动名词是非谓语动词的一种,在句子中可以用作主语、宾语、表语、定语等成分。

  例如:Seeing is believing.(主语)眼见为实。

  It is no use sending him over.(主语)派他去没用。

  注意:(1)在It is no use(或good,need)...或It's useless(或worth-while)...等结构中,常用动名词作真正主语。

  (2)在There is no v.-ing...结构中,常用动名词作主语。例如:

  There is no joking about the matter.这事开不得玩笑。

  My job is teaching.我的工作是教书。(表语)

  He has finished doing his work.他已经干完了他的工作。(宾语)

  注意:动名词只能作前置定语表示被修饰的词的目的或用途。

  例如:a sleeping car(a car for selleping)卧车

  下面我在谈一谈动名词的复合结构,其结构形式为“形容词性物主代词(或名词所有格)+动名词”在句中可用做主语、宾语或表语:

  例如:Your going there will help a lot.[主语]你去那儿将大有用处。

  Do you mind my opening the door?[宾语]我打开门行吗?

  注意:(1)如果不是在句首,这种结构在口语中可用“代词宾格(或名词普通格)+动名词”。

  Is there any hope of him and his sister winning the prize?他而后他妹妹有希望得奖吗?

  (2)如果名词是表示无生命事物时,不用名词所有格,只能用“名词的普通格+动名词”

  Can you hear the noise of the machine renning?你能听到机器运转的声音吗?

  2.Just like spoken language,body language varies from culture to culture.就像口语,体态在不同的文化之间有差异。

  [问]请问from culture to culture是什么意思?

  [答]本句中的字面意思为“从一种文化到另一种文化”。介词短语“from...to...”是从……到……“的意思,注意:此句型中不需要冠词。

  例如:from time to time时时;from generation to generation世世代代

  [相关短语]from before从……以前;from behind从……后面;from...on从……(时间)以后(以来),从……时起

  3.Making eye contact-looking directly into someone's eyes---is in some countries a way to show that one is interested.眼神交流——直视某人,在某些国家是一种某人感兴趣的方式。

  [问]请问look into是什么意思?

  [答]look into a matter(a machine)调查某事(检查机器)

  [相关短语]look after照料;look back(与on,to连用)回想,记起;停滞不前

  From this time on,he never looked back.

  从此以后他便不断进步了。

  look down on轻视,看不起;look forward to盼望;期待

  I'm looking forward to seeing you this summer vacation.我盼望今年暑假见到你。

  look out注意;look up在书中查到

  When yo do not understand a word,you can look it up in this dictionary.

  当你不懂一个单词时,可以查这本词典。

  4.In Japan,someone who sees another person making the gesture will think it means money.在日本,看见另外一个人在作这种手势的人,他会以为这种手势指的是钱。

  [问]请帮助分析一下这个句子的结构。

  [答]好的,本句是一个复合句,其主语为someone,它由一个定语从句who sees another person making the gesture修饰,而这个从句中又有动词短语to see sb.doing sth.的结构,其意为“看见某人做某事”,同时,本句还含有一个宾语从句,其意为“看见某人做某事”,同时,本句还含有一个宾语从句it means money。

  5.In Bulgaria,parts of Greece,and Iran,however,the gestures have the opposite meaning.在保加利亚和部分希腊、伊朗地区,可是,这些手势却有相反的意思。

  [问]能讲一讲however的用法吗?

  [答]however可以作(1)adv.无论如何;不论到什么程度

  例如:He can answer the question however hard it is.

  不管问题有多难他都能回答。

  However did you get here?你是怎么到这里来的?

  (2)不过;然而

  例如:He hasn't arrived.He may,however,come later.

  他还未到,不过,他可能过一会儿来。

  I'd like to go with you,however,my hands are full.我很想和你一块儿去,可是我忙不过来。

  (3)不管用什么方法;无论什么方式

  例如:However I cook eggs,the child still refuses to eat them.

  不管我用什么方法煮鸡蛋,小孩还是不肯吃。

  名题精选:We'll have to finish the job,___.(90年高考题)

  A.long it takes however

  B.it takes however long

  C.long however it takes

  D.however long it takes

  答案:D。本题考查however引导的让步状语从句的用法。however表示“不管到什么程度”,用来引导让步状语从句,本身应放在从句首,其后紧跟它所修饰的形容词或副词。因此,正常的顺序为D项。也可转换成“no natter how long it takes”。

  6.There are also differences in how often we touch each other,how close we stand to someone we are talking to,and how we act when we meet or part.在这方面也存在着差异,我们平常怎样相互接触,当我们谈话时,我们离别人站得有多近以及当我们遇见和离开时,我们怎样做动作。

  [问]请给我们分析一下这个句子的结构。

  [答]这是一个复合句,其主句为There are also differences,后面是how引导的并列的三个宾语从句作介词in的宾语,其中第二个宾语从句how close we stand to someone we are talking to中又有一个定语从句we are talking to修饰someone,而最后一个宾语从句how we act when we meet or part中还含有时间状语从句when we meet or part。

  7.In some countries,for example France and Russia,a visiting friend is greeted with a kiss on the cheek.在一些国家,比如法国和俄罗斯,来访的朋友通常哟啊被吻脸颊以示欢迎。

  [问]with a kiss on the cheek在这里是什么意思?

  [答]with在这里是prep表示“用”的意思,例如:I pity the orphans with all my heart.我完全同情这些孤儿。

  He opened the door with his key.他用钥匙开了门。而在a visiting friend中,visiting是一个现在分词作定语,其意为“来访的”。在这里我们要注意with和in的区别,in也可以表示“用”的意思,但一般表示“用文字材料”,例如:write articles in Chinese用汉语写文章;write in ink(pencil)用钢笔写(无冠词)。

  8.A smile can help us get through difficult situations and find friends in a world of strangers.微笑能够帮助我们通过困难处境和在陌生的环境中找到朋友。

  [问]help us get through是什么意思?

  [答]help us get through是help后跟的不带to的动词不定式,动词help后的不定式既可以带to也可以不带to。而本句中的get through是“通过,度过,打通”的意思。get through还有“接通(电话),让人了解”的意思。例如:Get it through to him that he must rest.要让他了解他该休息了。另外,在这里我们归纳一下与get相关的短语:

  get sth.done(使)让人做好;做(该做的事)

  I'll just get these dishes washed and then I'll come.我得把盘子洗了,然后就来。

  get across被理解;使人了解

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