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高二下学年英语期末考试重点复习

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  Section I课前准备、听力、口语

  1.Never throw away or wash chopsticks again.千万不要扔掉再洗这些筷子。(p.57 A)

  ▲throw(threw,thrown)

  (1)投,抛,扔He threw the ball 20 metres.他把球投出20米。

  (2)摔倒……The policeman threw the thief to the ground.警察把小偷摔倒在地面上。

  (3)发射,射China has throw a satellite into space recent-ly.中国最近向太空发射了一枚卫星。

  辨析:throw...to sb.与throw...at sb.

  throw sth.to sb.指“把某物扔向某人”,其目的在于“传递”(for sb.to catch)介词to纯粹表示行为的方向,其动机是善意的;throw sth.at sb.指“把某物打向某人”,其目的在于“打”(=try to hit sb.)。介词at表示动作在于企图攻击的目标,其动机是恶意的。如:He threw the ball at me.(=try to hit me)他扔球打我。He threw the ball to me.(=for me to catch)他把球传给了我(=He threw me the ball.)

  辨析:throw与cast

  throw是普通用词,使用频率高,它指用力抛掷这一行为。cast比throw正式,指迅速扔出一重量较轻的物体。经常用作比喻或无意识行为,在某些成语及特殊用语中须用cast,如cast a net“撒网”;cast a vote“投票”;cast anchor“抛锚”等等。如:Will you move,please?You're casting(throwing)a shadow on my book.你走开点好吗?你的影子正好投射在我的书上。He quickly threw the ball into the basket.他迅速地将球投入篮里。The dice is cast.事已定局。

  拓展:throw oneself into积极从事;throw away扔掉;throw about乱丢;乱扔(东西);throw back扔回;throw…at…朝……扔,向……砸去;throw off匆匆脱掉

  throw...to...把……传给……;把……摔倒;throw out扔出;逐出;throw aside扔在一旁;throw up呕吐

  2.Save trees and have a snack at the same time挽救了树木并且同时成为小吃。(p.57 A)

  ▲save(1)vt.救、挽救The brave soldier saved a child from a burning house.那勇敢的战士从着火的房子里救出了一个孩子。Only socialism can save China.只有社会主义才能救中国。

  辨析:save与rescue:save与rescue两者都有“营救”之意;但save侧重于“保全”之意,而rescue则侧重于“从囚禁中救出”之意。如:In order to save the country,many gentlemen laid down their lives.许多志士仁人为国捐躯了。They rescued him from prison.他们营救他出狱。

  (2)节省;储蓄Don't spend all your money,save some of it for future use.别把钱全部花光,储蓄一点儿以备将来之用。

  3.You will never have to worry about having your bike stolen again.你再也不必担心自行车会被偷走了。(p.57 D)▲worry

  (1)vi.“发愁,着急,焦虑”Mother always worried when the girls stayed out late.女孩们要是很晚还不回家,母亲总是很担心。

  (2)vt.“使麻烦;使发愁;使着急”Don't worry her,She is busy.别去麻烦她,她很忙。There's only one point that worries me.只有一点使我发愁。

  (3)n.“烦恼”不可数;“使人发愁的事(人);烦心的事”(可数),且常用复数。This worry is enough to drive one mad.这烦恼足以令人发狂。He has many worries.他有很多的烦恼的事情。

  辨析:worry与trouble:trouble的含义宽广,事无巨细都可用它,且含有一定的惊慌意味;worry"担心”“发愁”,它指没有根据的,经常是不必要的忧虑不安的心情。如:

  Uneasiness troubled her heart.她感到心神不定。I'm troubled by the doctor's report.医生的诊断结果令我焦急。Don't worry,tomorrow will be better.别担心,明天会更好。We're all worried about you.我们都在为你担心。

  拓展:worry sb.使某人烦恼(着急);worry about sb.为某人而担心;worry through艰苦进行

  4.This new invention will make it possible for people to...这项新发明将使人们做…成为可能。(p.58 Useful expressions)▲makes it possible...

  (1)此处it为形式宾语,本身为先行代词,它既可作形式宾语,又可用作形式主语,代替句中的真正主语或宾语,即从句、动名词、不定式等。I think it a pity that he can't swim.我认为他不能游泳是件令人遗憾的事。It is important for us to master English.掌握英语对我们来说是重要的。It is no use telling him that.告诉他那件事是没有用的。

  (2)it作形式宾语时,其前的动词有:think,find,consider,believe,suppose,feel,make等,而if后常跟形容词或名词。He feels it his duty to help others.他觉得帮助别人是他的职责。We make it clear to the world that we'll never behave like a superpower.我们向全世界表明我们永远不做超级大国。I consider it a great honour to be present at the meeting.我觉得能出席这个会议很荣幸。He found it necessary to study the situation in Russia.他发现研究俄罗斯的形势是必要的。I believe it helpful to use such a dictionary.我相信使用这样的一本词典是有帮助的。I suppose it possible to finish such a join in three days.我想三天之内完成这样一件工作是有可能的。

  5.Decide which of the inventions you think is the most useful and...决定你认为哪一种发明是最有用的。(p.58.Patent Officer)▲decide决定,决心;使下决心,使决断;对...起了决定作用;解决,裁决,判决

  (1)跟名词或代词I’ve got to decide our whole future.我得决定我们的整个未来。We must decide that ourselves.这得由我们自己决定。

  (2)跟不定式(不可跟动名词)They decided to move to Wuchang immediately.他们决定马上搬到武昌去。He decided to do his homework.他决定做他的家庭作业。

  (3)跟疑问词+不定式We must decide what to do with them.我们必须决定拿他们怎么办。She hasn’t decided when to start.何时动身她还没有决定。She hasn't decided when to start.何时动身她还没有决定。

  (4)跟从句Let's first decide where we should go.我们先决定到什么地方去。Only you can decide what's best for you.只有你才能决定什么对你最合适。

  辨析:decide;determine;resolve;make up one's mind都有“决定”的意思。decide指“经过询问、研讨和考虑之后,在几种可能的选择之中作出决定”,如:She decided to leave here on Sunday instead of Monday.她决定星期日而不是星期一离开这里。determine指“决心作某一件事而不动摇”,如:We have determined to get the work done ahead of schedule.我们已经决定要提前完成这项工作。resolve指“打定主意做某事或不做某事”,如:I resolve to study English.我决定学英语。make up one's mind指“打定主意”“下了决心”;其主语必须是人,不可是物,而且不可用于被动语态。如:He made up his mind not to stay there any longer.他决定不再在那里呆下去了。

  拓展:decide for doing sth.决定做某事;decide in favour of sth.作出有利……的决定或判决;decide on(upon)决定,选择(多指从两个或多个可能性中选择);decide between从两者中选择、决定。

  联想:decided adj.明确的,坚决的;deciding adj.起决定作用的;decision n.决定,决心(同义词)determine;make up one's mind

  Section II阅读

  6.How do they come up with ideas for new inventions?他们怎么提出新发明的想法的?(p.59.Pre-Reading 3)/(p.59 Reading第一段第二行)比较:解释3

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