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直接引语与间接引语知识点总结,高中英语直接引语与间接引语知识点总结

来源:101教育网整理 2017-09-29 字体大小: 分享到:

  高中英语直接引语与间接引语知识点总结(一)

  一、概述

  引用或转述别人说的话时有两种方法:直接引述别人的原话,这叫做直接引语(direct speech)。用自己的话转述别人的话,叫间接引语(indirect speech)。一般地讲,直接引语前后要加引号,间接引语不用引号,而用宾语从句来表达。

  Mr.Black said,“I'm busy.”布菜克先生说:“我很忙”。(直接引语)

  Mr.Black saidthat he was busy.布菜克先生说他很忙。(宾语从句是间接引语)

  从上例看来,直接引语改为间接引语时,除将直接引语改为宾语从句之外,还须对直接引语中的人称和时态进行相应的变化,如上例直接引语中的I改成了he,am则改成了was。现将由直接引语改为间接引语时应注意的问题,分述如下:

  二、直接引语是陈述句时

  直接引语如果是陈述句,变为间接引语时,用连词that引导(that在口语中常省去),that从句之前用say、tell等动词,从句中的人称、时态、指示代词、时间状语、地点状语等要作相应的变化。

  1、人称的变化

  直接引语改为间接引语人称要相应的变化,把直接引语中的第一人称(如:I,me,my,mine,we,us,our,ours)变为与主句的主语相一致的人称。把直接引语中的第二人称(you,your,yours)变为和主句的间接宾语(即听话人,如无听话人,可根据上下文的体会人为确定一个人称)相一致的人称。直接引语中的第三人称(he,him,his,she,her,hers,it,its,they,their,theirs,them)变为间接引语时,人称不变。

  He said,“Ilikeitvery much.”他说:“我非常喜欢它”。

  →He saidthathelikeditvery much.他说他非常喜欢它。(I改为he,it不变)

  He said,“Youtoldmethis story.”他说:“你给我讲过这个故事。”

  →He said thatIhad toldhimthat story.他说我给他讲过那个故事。(You改为I,me改为him,told改为had told)

  He said to me,“She’sleftherbook inyourroom”.他对我说:“她把书放在你的房间里去了。”

  He told me thatshe hadleftherbook inmyroom.他对我说她把书放在我的房间里去了。(She’s→she had,her不变,your→my)

  2、时态的变化

  (1)主句的谓语动词是一般过去时

  如主句的谓语动词是一般过去时,直接引语变间接引语时,从句的谓语动词在时态方面要作相应的变化。直接引语改为间接引语时,动词时态相应变化表:

  He said,“I usuallywatchTV on Sunday.”他说:“我常在星期天看电视”。

  →He said that he usuallywatchedTV on Sunday.他说他常在星期天看电视。

  He said,“I'm usingthe knife.”他说:“我正在用小刀。”

  →He said that hewas usingthe knife.他说他正在用小刀。

  She said,“Ihave not heardfrom him since May.”她说:“自从五月份来我就没有收到他的来信。”

  →She said that shehad notheard from him since May.她说自从五月份以来她就没收到他的来信。

  He said,“Icameto help you.”他说:“我来帮助你。”

  →He said thathe had cometo help me.他说他来帮助我。

  He said,“Ihad finishedmy homework before supper.”他说:“晚饭前我己做完了作业。”

  →He said that hehad finishedhis homework before supper.他说晚饭前他己做完了作业。

  Zhou Lan said,“I'll doit after class.”周兰说:“下课后我就去做。”

  →Zhou Lan said that shewould doit after class.周兰说下课后她就去做。

  He said,“Ishall be doingmy homework then.”他说:“那时我将正在做作业。”

  →He said that heshould be doinghis homework then.他说那时他将正在做作业。

  He said,“Weshall have finishedthe work by that time.”他说:“我们将在那时以前完成工作。”

  →He said that theyshould have finishedthe work by that time.他说他们将在那时以前完成工作。

  注意:直接引语如果是客观真理、名人名言、与一个具体的过去时间连用说明客观事实时,变为间接引语时,时态不变。

  The teacher said,“The earthisround.”老师说:“地球是圆的。”

  →The teacher said that the earthisround.老师说地球是圆的。

  He said,“Iwasborn in Shangdong in 1965.”他说:“我1965年生于山东。”

  →He said that hewasborn in Shangdong in 1965.他说他1965年生于山东。

  He said,“ColumbusdiscoveredAmerica in 1492.”他说:“哥伦布在1492年发现了美洲。”

  →He said ColumbusdiscoveredAmerica in 1492.他说哥伦布在1492年发现了美洲。

  (2)主句的谓语动词是现在时或将来时

  如果主句的谓语动词是现在时或将来时,直接引语变为间接引语时,时态一律不变

  He says,“Ifinishedthe work.”他说:“我做完工作了。”

  He says that hefinishedthe work.他说他做完工作了。

  He will say,“Ihave wateredthe flowers.”他会说:“我己经浇花了。”

  He will say hehas wateredthe flowers.他会说他己经浇花了。

  高中英语直接引语与间接引语知识点总结(二)

  直接引语与间接引语

  定义:

  直接引语:直接引用别人的原话,并在原话前后加引号。

  例:He said:"It is too late."

  间接引语:用自己的话转述别人的话,多数以宾语从句的形式构成。

  例:He said it was too late.

  直接引语与间接引语的转换:

  一、人称代词的变化:

  直接引语变间接引语时,人称代词的变化一般规律是:

  第一人称→第三人称;

  第二人称→第一人称;

  第三人称→第三人称。

  简记为“二一、一三、三留”。

  例:"I'm thinking of changing my address."he said.

  →He said that he was thinking of changing his address.(I和he指同一个人)

  Xiao Ming asked me,"Are you going to the park with us?"

  →Xiao Ming asked me if I wasgoing to the park with them.(us与them指相同的人,XiaoMing是其中的一员;me和you指同一个人)

  Mr.Li said,"She will attend the meeting."

  →Mr.Li saidthatshewouldattendthemeeting.(Mr.Li和she不是同一个人)但当说话者是第一人称,直接引语中的主语也是第一人称时,不作变化。

  I said to my children,"I will give you some presents on Christmas Day."

  →I told my children I would give them some presents on Christmas Day.(I为同一说话者)

  二、时态的变化:

  直接引语变间接引语时,时态的变化规律是往“过去”相应的时态推移:

  一般现在时→一般过去时,

  一般将来时→过去将来时,

  现在进行时→过去进行时,

  现在完成时→过去完成时,

  一般过去时/过去完成时→过去完成时。

  如:My father told me,"He will come back next week."

  →My father told me that he would come back the next week.

  She asked me,"Did you finish your homework?"

  →She asked me if I had finished my homework.

  注意:直接引语属下列情况时,时态不作变化:

  1、直接引语属真理或客观事实时:

  如:The teacher said to us,"Light runs much faster than sound."

  →The teacher told us light runs much faster than sound.

  2、主句谓语动词是现在或将来某个时态:

  如:The old man often says,"I joined the Red Army when I was young."

  →The old man often says that he joined the Red Army when he was young.

  3、直接引语带有具体的过去时间状语时:

  如:The politics teacher said to us,"The party was founded in 1921."

  →The politics teacher told us that the party was founded in 1921.

  4、直接引语谓语有情态动词:had better,would rather及need,must,oughtto等时:

  如:He said to me,"I would rather live in the countryside."

  →He told me that he would rather live in the countryside.

  5、直接引语为虚拟语气谓语时e.g.Shesaid,"IwouldbehappyifIwereabird."→Shesaidthatshewouldbehappyifshewereabird.

  三、句型的变化:

  直接引语变间接引语时,句型要作适当变化:

  1、变陈述句为由that引导的从句(that常省略):

  如:"I want to improve my English at school,"said the child.

  →The child said(that)he wanted to improve his English at school.

  2、变一般疑问句为由if/whether引导的从句:

  如:"Are you sure he will come today?"Jenny asked Helen.

  →Jenny asked Helen if/whether she was sure he would come that day.

  3、变选择疑问句为由whether...or.../whether...or not引导的从句:

  如:"Is he a director or an actor?"she asked me.

  →She asked me whether he was a director or an actor.

  4、变反意问句时,要视说话者的语气而定:

  (1)表示疑问时,先需去掉后面的反意问句部分,再按一般疑问句变化。

  如:"You haven't finished your composition,have you?"the teacher said to me.

  →The teacher asked me if I had finished my composition.

  (2)表示提醒或警告等特别语气时,先按陈述句变化,再把间接引语前的动词更换为表示相应语气的动词remind,warn等。

  如:"You're late for class,aren't you?"the teacher said angrily to me.

  →The teacher warned me that I was late for class.

  5、变特殊疑问词开头的问句为原特殊疑问词引导的从句:

  如:"When did you come here?"Tom asked Jim.

  →Tom asked Jim when he had gone there.

  6、变祈使句为不定式短语,作动词ask,tell,order,beg,request,advise,offer,warn等的宾语补足语,宾语为说话者的对象,选什么动词,视情况而定:

  如:The doctor said to the patient,"Don't eat oily food again."

  →The doctor advised the patient not to eat oily food again.

  7、变感叹句为how或what引出的从句,也可用that引出从句:

  如:"How clever a boy he is."the teacher said to the mother.

  →The teacher told the mother how clever a boy he was.

  或:The teacher told the mother that he was clever boy.

  8、直接引语是多个句子时,按其句型特点,用上面的方法分别处理,并用and连接:

  如:Mrs.Smith said,"I don't know the way to the station.How can I get there?"

  →Mrs.Smith said that she didn't know the way to the station and asked me how she could get there.

  9、若直接引语是What's the matter?/What has happened?/What's wrong with...?时,变成间接引语语序不变:

  如:"What's the matter?"said he.

  →He asked me what was the matter.

  直接引语变间接引语词语转化对比:

  直接引语间接引语

  this,these that,those

  here there

  now then

  today,tonight that day,that night

  this evening that evening

  last week the week before

  tomorrow the next/following day

  yesterday the day before

  next week/month/year the next week/month/year

  ago before

  come go

  注意:如果在当时转述别人话,不必要改变时间状语;在原地转述别人的话,也不必改变地点状语,同样,come也不一定要改为go。

  如:John said just now,"I came here yesterday."

  →John said just now that he came here yesterday.

上一篇:反诘句知识点总结,高中英语反诘句知识点总结

下一篇:过去进行时的被动语态知识点总结,高中英语过去进行时的被动语态知识点总结

高一期末考前辅导
标签: 英语 高一英语 (责任编辑:wangliru)

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