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过去进行时的被动语态知识点总结,高中英语过去进行时的被动语态知识点总结

来源:101教育网整理 2017-09-29 字体大小: 分享到:

  高中英语过去进行时的被动语态知识点总结(一)

  过去进行时的被动语态的概念:

  表示过去某个时刻正在进行或者发生的被动性的动作。过去进行时的被动语态构成:Was/were+being+动词的过去分词

  如:They were planting trees at this time yesterday.(主动语态)

  Trees were being planted by them at this time yesterday.(过去进行时被动语态)

  过去进行时态的被动语态的基本结构的构成:

  1、过去进行时态的被动语态的肯定式为:was/were+being+done。

  如:Computer was being majored by him during his college.他那时正在大学学计算机专业。

  Another bridgewas being built over the Changjiang River then.那时长江上正在建造另一座大桥。

  2、过去进行时态的被动语态的否定式为:was/were+not+being+done。

  如:The movie star wasn't being stalked by a fan.那个电影明星正在被一个粉丝跟踪.

  3、过去进行时态的被动语态的一般疑问句需将was/were提到主语的前面。(回答用yes或no)

  如:Was a new library being put up in their school just then?他们学校当时正在建一座新图书馆吗。

  4、过去进行时态的被动语态的特殊疑问句为:疑问词+was/were+(主语)+being+done。

  如:What was being done to the machine?对这台机器要采取了什么措施?

  过去进行时态的被动语态的用法:

  1、过去进行时态的被动语态的同它的主动语态一样,表示过去正在进行的被动动作。

  He is be inginter viewed by our head master now.他正在接受我们校长的采访。

  This film is being shown now.这部电影正在被放映。

  2、过去进行时态的被动语态一般不与表示一段时间的状语或表示次数的状语连用,这时需要用完成时态的被动语态。

  如:The watch is being repaired twice.改成The watch has been reparied twice.

  The house over there is being built for two months.改成The house over there has been built for two months.

  4、少数及物动词的的进行时表示按计划、安排将要承受某个动作。

  如:Some rock music is being played by them next.下面将由他们演奏一些摇滚音乐。

  A party is being held tonight.今晚将举办一场晚会。

  高中英语过去进行时的被动语态知识点总结(二)

  各种时态的被动语态

  一、八大时态的被动语态的构成:

  1.一般现在时的被动语态构成:(am/is/are+done)如:

  I am asked to study hard.我被请求努力学习。

  This shirt is washed once a week.这件T恤一周洗一次。

  These songs are usually sung by boys.这些歌曲通常是男生唱的。

  2.一般过去时的被动语态构成:(was/were done)如:

  The soldier was killed,but the train was saved.这位战士牺牲了,然而列车得救了。

  Some notes were passed up to the speaker.有人给讲演者递上来一些纸条。

  3.一般将来时的被动语态构成:(shall/will be done)如:

  We shall be asked a lot of strange questions.我们将被问许多怪题。

  My son will be sent to school next September.来年九月我将送我儿子去读书。

  4.过去将来时的被动语态构成:(should/would be done)如:

  The news would be sent to him as soon as it arrived.消息一到就会转给他的。

  He told us that the new railway would be built the next year.他告诉我新铁路将在明年修建。

  5.现在完成时的被动语态构成:(has/have been done)如:

  The work has just been finished.工作刚刚结束。

  Theoldruleshavebeendoneawaywithbyus.旧规章已经被我们废除了。

  6.过去完成时的被动语态构成:(had been done)如:

  By last December three ships had been built by them.到去年十二月底他们已建造了三艘船。

  100 tractors had been produced by the end of last year.在去年年底前生产了100辆拖拉机。

  7.现在进行时的被动语态构成:(am/is/are being done)如:

  Thebridgeisbeingrepaired.桥梁正在修复中。

  The new library is being built by the workers.新的图书馆正在被工人们建设中。

  8.过去进行时的被动语态构成:(was/were being done)如:

  A meeting was being held when I was there.我在时,会议在开着。

  The college was being built at this time last year.去年这个时候这所大学正在建设中。

  二、被动语态的用法:

  1.强调动作的承受者(有时用by短语来强调动作的执行者):

  Xiao Li was made monitor of the class.小李被选为班长。

  This work must be done by you,and not by me.这件工作必须由你做,而不是我来做。

  2.不知道或不必说出动作的执行者:

  His bike was stolen last night.他的自行车昨晚被人偷走了。

  Every year a lot os people are killed in the traffic accidents.

  每年都有许多人死于交通事故。

  3.为了表示委婉或礼貌,避免提及动作执行者或说话者自己:

  Everybody is expected to obey the following rules.希望大家遵守以下规定。

  You are friendly invited to come to our English party at 8:00 p.m.tomorrow.

  敬请您明天晚上8:00光临我们的英语晚会。

  4.动作的执行者是无生命的事物:

  The house was struck by lightning.那房子被闪电所击中。

  The famous museum was practically ruined by the big fire.

  大火使这家著名的博物馆几乎全部毁坏。

  5.使句子连接自然或更加简洁、匀称。

  The old professor gave a lecture on American hisotry and was well received.

  这位老教授作了一个有关美国历史的讲座,受到大家的热烈欢迎。

  The book which had been lost was found and was returned to the library.

  那本丢失的书找到后被还回到图书馆。

  三、特殊情况下的被动语态:

  1.带情态动词的被动结构,其形式为:情态动词+be+过去分词,如:

  This must be kept in mind.我们必须把这个记在心里。

  I ought to be criticized for it.我应该为此受到批评.

  2.带双宾语的被动结构,习惯上把间宾提前,也可把直宾提前,但不要遗漏介词:

  IwasgivenatoyatChristmas.或AtoywasgiventomeatChristmas.

  父亲在圣诞节送我一个玩具。

  Hewasofferedsomeassistance.或Someassistancewasofferedtohim.

  他们向他提供一些帮助。

  3.带复合宾语的被动结构,只将宾语提前,宾补不动(但make,see,hear等宾补省略的to,

  变被动结构时要加to)。

  The boy was caught smoking a cigarette.男孩被看到正在吸烟。

  They were made to work day and night.他们被迫黑天白天得工作。

  四、被动语态与系表结构的区别:

  被动语态与系表结构都是由“be+过去分词”来构成,其区别如下:

  1.如果强调动作或句中有介词by引导出动作的执行者,该句一般为被动语态,否则为系表结构。

  The glass is broken.玻璃杯碎了。(系表结构)

  The glass was broken by the boy.玻璃杯被那男孩打碎了。(被动语态)

  2.如果句中有地点、频率或时间状语时,一般为被动语态。

  The door is locked.门锁上了。(系表结构)

  The door has already/just been locked.门已经被锁上了。(被动语态)

  3.被动语态除用于一般时态和完成时态外,还可以用于进行或将来时态,而系表结构中的系动词be

  只有一般时态和完成时态。

  The machine is being repaired.正在修理机器。(被动语态)

  A new school will be built here.将在这里建一所新学校。(被动语态)

  被动语态练习题:

  I.主动语态和被动语态互变:

  1.We shall discuss the problem at tomorrow's meeting.

  2.His mother gave him a present for his birthday.

  3.You can hand in your homework tomorrow.

  4.The nurse is taking care of the sick man.

  5.You must lock the door when you leave.

  6.I was made a new dress by aunt./A new dress was made for me by aunt.

  7.Apicturewasboughtforme.

  8.He was heard to sing in his room just now.

  9.A new public school will be set up here.

  10.The boy was caught smoking a cigarette.

  一般将来时态的被动语态

  一、一般将来时态的被动语态的基本结构的构成:

  1.一般将来时态的被动语态的肯定式为:shall/will+be+done。(shall用于第一人称;will用于各种人称)如:

  We shall be punished if we break the rule.

  如果我们违反规定,我们将要受到惩罚。

  The new film will be shown next Thursday.

  这部新电影将在下周四上映。

  2.一般将来时态的被动语态的否定式为:shall/will+not+be+done.(可缩写成shan’t或won’t)如:

  The meeting won’t be held tomorrow.

  明天不再举行会议。

  The exhibition won’t be put off till next week.

  展览会将不会推迟到下周。

  3.一般将来时态的被动语态的一般疑问句需将shall/will提到主语的前面。(回答用yes或no)如:

  Won’t water be turned into ice,it it is belwo freezing?

  如果气温在冰点之下,水难道不会变成冰吗?

  ---Will the work be finished at once?---Yes,it will.

  ---这项工作会立刻被完成吗?---是的,立刻就完成。

  4.一般将来时态的被动语态的特殊疑问句为:疑问词+shall/will+S+be+done。如:

  When will these books be published?

  这些书将在什么时候被出版?

  Whom will this book be written by?

  谁来写这本书?

  二、一般将来时态的被动语态的其他结构构成:

  1.be going to be done

  Some old buildings are going to be put down.

  一些旧的楼房将被推倒。

  The problem isn’t going to be discussed at the meeting tomorrow.

  这个问题将不在明天的会议上被讨论。

  ---Are these trees going to be cut down?---Yes,they are.

  ---这些树将被砍倒吗?---是的,将被砍倒

  2.be to be done

  The sports meet is to be held on April 10.

  运动会将于四月十日举行。

  The machines are not to be repaired tonight.

  今晚将不会修理这些机器。

  ---Are new textbooks to be published next week?---No,they aren’t.

  新教科书将在下周出版吗?不,不是。

  三、一般将来时态的被动语态的用法:

  1.一般将来时态的被动语态的同它的主动语态一样,强调表示根据计划或安排将要发生的被动性动作。

  The new film will be shown next Thursday.

  这部新电影将在下周四上映。

  A lot of athletes will be invited toBeijing.

  好多运动员将被邀请到北京来。

  2.在时间、条件状语从句中,常用一般现在时的被动语态代替一般将来时的被动语态。如:

  When the dam is completed,theChangjiang Riverwill be controlled.

  当大坝竣工时,长江将得到控制。

  If I am given enough time,I will go toJapanfor my holiday.

  如果我有足够的时间,我将去日本度假。

  3.表示有固定性条件就有规律性被动结果。如:

  Heated to 100·c,water will be turned into steam.

  加热到100度时,水将会变成蒸气。

  If you speak in class,you will be punished.

  如果你在课堂上讲话,你将会被惩罚。

  II.主动句变被动句:

  1.We shall discuss the question at the next meeting.

  2.I shall give you the book tomorrow.

  3.The chairman will ask us to attend the meeting.

  4.He will soon decide when we shall have the meeting.

  5.If the weather permits,we will complete the works on time.

  6.If you give me more time,I’ll work out the problem.

  Many people speak English.

  谓语:speak的动作是由主语many people来执行的。

  被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者,即行为动作的对象。巧记为:被动、被动、主被动。例如:English is spoken by many people.主语English是动词speak的承受者。

  主动态和被动态指的是动词形式,是词法概念;而主动句和被动句则指的是句子结构,从而是句法概念。所谓主动句就是由主动态动词(词组)作谓语动词的句子,而被动句则是由被动态动词(词组)作谓语动词的句子。

  例如:He opened the door.他开了门。(主动句)

  The door was opened.门被开了。(被动句)

  二、被动语态的构成

  被动语态由“助动词be+及物动词的过去分词”构成。人称、数和时态的变化是通过be的变化表现出来的。现以teach为例说明被动语态在各种时态中的构成。

  一般现在时:am/is/are+taught

  一般过去时:was/were+taught

  一般将来时:will/shall be+taught

  现在进行时:am/is/are being+taught

  过去进行时:have/has been+taught

  现在完成时:have/has been+taught

  歌诀是:被动语态be字变,过去分词跟后面。

  三、被动语态的用法

  (1)不知道或没有必要说明动作的执行者是谁。

  例如:

  Some new computers were stolen last night.

  一些新电脑在昨晚被盗了。(不知道电脑是谁偷的)

  This book was published in 1981.这本书出版于1981年。

  (2)强调动作的承受者,而不强调动作的执行者。

  例如:the window was broken by Mike.窗户是迈克打破的。

  This book was written by him.这本书是他写的。

  Eight hours per day for sleep must be guaranteed.每天8小时睡眠必须得到保证。

  歌诀:谁做的动作不知道,说出谁做的没有必要;

  动作承受者需强调,被动语态运用到。

  四、主动语态变被动语态的方法

  (1)把主动语态的宾语变为被动语态的主语。

  (2)把谓语变成被动结构(be+过去分词)

  (根据被动语态句子里的主语的人称和数,以及原来主动语态句子中动词的时态来决定be的形式)。

  (3)把主动语态中的主语放在介词by之后作宾语,将主格改为宾格。例如:

  All the people laughed at him.

  He was laughed at by all people.

  They make the bikes in the factory.

  The bikes are made by them in the factory.

  歌诀是:宾变主,主变宾,by短语后面跟。

  谓语动词变被动,be后“过分”来使用。

  五、含有情态动词的被动语态

  含有情态动词的主动句变成被动句时,由“情态动词+be+过去分词”构成,原来带to的情态动词变成被动语态后“to”仍要保留。

  歌诀是:情态动词变动,情态加be加“过分”,原来带to要保留。例如:

  We can repair this watch in two days.

  This watch can be repaired in two days.

  You ought to take it away.

  It ought to be taken away.

  They should do it at once.

  It should be done at once

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